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May 1, 2017

Aggregate play an important part in providing strength to concrete, the transition zone of concrete is the interfacial region between an aggregate and cement paste and is responsible for providing compressive strength to cement. Care should be taken to use Maximum size aggregate (MSA) more than 20 mm in your houses while there may be rubble of size as big as 80 to 150 mm. However, in the construction of nuclear power plants, use of rubble is advised since they require thick wall section to act as a shield against radiation.

However, use of angular aggregate is advised since these aggregates have a good interlocking effect, possess minimal surface area and hence require less mortar to cover their surface. Extraction of aggregate, care should be taken to make the aggregate undergo washing or sieve analysis before its use. Since any presence of harmful substances involving silt, clay, pyrites, acidic salts can affect the strength and durability of the concrete leading to inhomogeneity in composition And failure of the structure when subjected to eccentric loading. The Bureau of the Indian standard specifications four grading zones for fine aggregate Group I to IV in order of decreasing particle size starting from coarse sand and ending up with fine sand. Use fine sand in making RCC structure since they porous and can cause corrosion in reinforcement.

Fine aggregates include natural sand, crushed natural gravel and crushed natural stone these particles should pass through a sieve of opening 4.75 mm whereas the ones which are completely retained in it are coarse aggregates which include uncrushed gravel and stone and big boulders.

Aggregate should be chemically inert in nature and should be sufficiently tough, hard and should have the good bearing capacity.
Well-Graded Aggregates used in a cement mixture can reduce the presence of air voids and help in providing sufficient strength and durability to concrete.

There are some tests carried out on aggregates such as the Los Angeles test, impact test, abrasion test and test of the soundness of aggregates done by dissolving them in a solution of sodium and magnesium sulphate.

For providing support over concrete dams which has a huge mass, aggregates formed by uneven rocks (particularly mafic and ultramafic) should be used.

In the construction of buttress and arch dams moderate to weak aggregates can be employed since the highest level of load acts on the abutments. Care should be taken to restrict the MSA of aggregate according to the nature of the building else's situation of segregation (separation of coarser particles from cement mix) and bleeding (the rise of water over the surface of concrete and formation of a layer of cement called Laitance) take place.

Source by Swapnil Upadhyay

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Scientific management theory was proposed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the first decade of the 20th century, is the first coherent theory of administration. According to this theory the same principles of management can be applied to all social entities. The governing policies for our homes, farms, state, business, and church, have the same underlying principles. It emphasized on improvements in the lower level of the company rather than at top management. It aimed at studying the relationship between the physical nature of work and the physiological nature of the workmen. It stressed upon specialization, predictability, technical competence and rationality for improving the organizational efficiency and economy.


Taylor gave the following four principles which according to him can be used universally:

-Construct a science for each element of a man’s work.

-Scientifically select, train, teach and develop workmen.

-Management should fully cooperate with workers.

-The division of work and responsibility between management and the workers must be shared equally.

Scientific management, according to Taylor, involves a complete mental revolution on the part of workers towards their duties, work, fellow men and their employers; and on the part of managers, towards their employees and their problems.


The techniques of scientific management facilitate the application of principles of scientific management mentioned below:

FUNCTIONAL FOREMANSHIP: Under this, a worker is supervised and guided by eight functional foremen. Four of these are responsible for planning viz. Order-of-work-and-route-clerk, Instruction-card clerk, Time-and-cost clerk, Shop Clerk. The other four are responsible for execution and serve on shop floor namely, Gang boss, speed boss, inspector and Repair boss.

MOTION STUDY: It involves the observation of all the motions comprised in a particular job and then determination of best set of motions.

TIME STUDY: It is used to determine the standard time for completion of work.

DIFFRENTIAL PIECE RATE PLAN: Under this plan, a worker is paid a low piece rate up to a standard, a large bonus at the standard and a higher piece rate above the standard.

EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE: It involves setting up a large daily task by the management, with reward for achieving targets and penalty for not meeting it.


Scientific management came to be criticized and opposed by various sections for the following reasons:

-It was concentrated on the shop floor. It did not stress on the higher levels of management.

-It was criticized as a mechanistic theory of organization as it neglected the human side of the organization. It treated worker as a machine and sought to make it as efficient as machine itself.

-It was criticized on the ground that it underestimated and oversimplified human motivation by explaining human motivation in terms of monetary aspects only.

-It was also opposed by the managers due to two reasons. First, they would lose their judgment and discretion due to the adoption of scientific methods. Second, their work and responsibilities increases under Taylorism.

Source by Allan Wu

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Just as there are reasons to get into global markets, and benefits from global markets, there are also risks involved in locating companies in certain countries. Each country may have its potentials; it also has its woes that are associated with doing business with major companies. Some of the rogue countries may have all the natural minerals but the risks involved in doing business in those countries exceed the benefits. Some of the risks in international business are:

(1) Strategic Risk

(2) Operational Risk

(3) Political Risk

(4) Country Risk

(5) Technological Risk

(6) Environmental Risk

(7) Economic Risk

(8) Financial Risk

(9) Terrorism Risk

Strategic Risk: The ability of a firm to make a strategic decision in order to respond to the forces that are a source of risk. These forces also impact the competitiveness of a firm. Porter defines them as: threat of new entrants in the industry, threat of substitute goods and services, intensity of competition within the industry, bargaining power of suppliers, and bargaining power of consumers.

Operational Risk: This is caused by the assets and financial capital that aid in the day-to-day business operations. The breakdown of machineries, supply and demand of the resources and products, shortfall of the goods and services, lack of perfect logistic and inventory will lead to inefficiency of production. By controlling costs, unnecessary waste will be reduced, and the process improvement may enhance the lead-time, reduce variance and contribute to efficiency in globalization.

Political Risk: The political actions and instability may make it difficult for companies to operate efficiently in these countries due to negative publicity and impact created by individuals in the top government. A firm cannot effectively operate to its full capacity in order to maximize profit in such an unstable country’s political turbulence. A new and hostile government may replace the friendly one, and hence expropriate foreign assets.

Country Risk: The culture or the instability of a country may create risks that may make it difficult for multinational companies to operate safely, effectively, and efficiently. Some of the country risks come from the governments’ policies, economic conditions, security factors, and political conditions. Solving one of these problems without all of the problems (aggregate) together will not be enough in mitigating the country risk.

Technological Risk: Lack of security in electronic transactions, the cost of developing new technology, and the fact that these new technology may fail, and when all of these are coupled with the outdated existing technology, the result may create a dangerous effect in doing business in the international arena.

Environmental Risk: Air, water, and environmental pollution may affect the health of the citizens, and lead to public outcry of the citizens. These problems may also lead to damaging the reputation of the companies that do business in that area.

Economic Risk: This comes from the inability of a country to meet its financial obligations. The changing of foreign-investment or/and domestic fiscal or monetary policies. The effect of exchange-rate and interest rate make it difficult to conduct international business.

Financial Risk: This area is affected by the currency exchange rate, government flexibility in allowing the firms to repatriate profits or funds outside the country. The devaluation and inflation will also impact the firm’s ability to operate at an efficient capacity and still be stable. Most countries make it difficult for foreign firms to repatriate funds thus forcing these firms to invest its funds at a less optimal level. Sometimes, firms’ assets are confiscated and that contributes to financial losses.

Terrorism Risk: These are attacks that may stem from lack of hope; confidence; differences in culture and religious philosophy, and/or merely hate of companies by citizens of host countries. It leads to potential hostile attitudes, sabotage of foreign companies and/or kidnapping of the employers and employees. Such frustrating situations make it difficult to operate in these countries.

Although the benefits in international business exceed the risks, firms should take a risk assessment of each country and to also include intellectual property, red tape and corruption, human resource restrictions, and ownership restrictions in the analysis, in order to consider all risks involved before venturing into any of the countries.

Source by Sidney Okolo

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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In every profession there are individuals that excel and can handle pressure. You see this all the time in Football, business and the political arenas. What makes some people excel under pressure and others fold? Can excellent performance under any circumstance be triggered on demand?

Why is this important to me?

I always want to ask this question as if I am sitting in your shoes. I don’t want to waste your time. Do you know people who are gifted? There are gifted people in all areas of life, so why is it that so few actually become successful? Talent is not enough. Without hard and smart work ethic and a dedicated focus, success will be fleeting. Psycho-Cybernetics will show us how to tap into our vast sub-conscious mind to aid us in our quest for success, meaning and happiness.

Psycho-Cybernetics is divided into 16 chapters of excellent information. For the sake of time, I will profile the 3 key takeaways that resonated with me. All of the points we will chat about revolve around the following point. The conscious mind can process roughly 40 bits per second while the subconscious mind can process 40 million bits per second. Understanding this difference and programming the subconscious mind will aid us in our quest for success, meaning and happiness.

1. Self-Image – This has to be the number one key to success or failure. Your current position in life right now is exactly proportional to your self-image or self-concept. What is the little voice inside of your head saying? The key takeaway here is to transform your inner critic into your inner coach. Controlling and molding your self-image is the foundation of the book. Tony Robbins has an excellent program that nails this point home. If you examine an excellent part of your life, you will find out that your blue print (BP) is equal to your Life Condition (LC). Likewise where there are issues in your life, the BP is not equal to the Life condition. The key here is to really understand and question your blue print and decide if you need to improve the life condition or change the blue print.

2. Automatic Success Mechanism or Automatic Failure Mechanism – Your brain acts as a guidance system toward things that you focus your attention on. This is known as slight edge behavior. The things you do and focus on daily are driving you toward a destination. Do you know where that destination is? If not then you need to spend the time to figure it out otherwise you will become part of someone else’s plan for YOUR life. The automatic success/failure mechanism is like a torpedo that is attracted to its destination. The guidance portion of the torpedo is dictated through your self-image. Self-destruction happens from within. Conditioning, habit and outside influences are how your self-image is molded. If you were raised being told you are nothing and will fail at everything then your self-image will prove it. If that motivates you to do better and you don’t believe it then you will succeed. Likewise if you drink the cool aid then you will live a life of unhappiness.

3. Conditioning, focus & Imagination – You can condition yourself to perform in any situation. The key component is to focus and change your physiology. Tony Robbins uses incantations to do this. An incantation is a body state change along with an affirmation. Incantations are stronger than affirmations because you are engaging your whole body. Think of this is a habit or ritual before you do something. Jack Nicolas, the great golfer, had a ritual before every swing. They analyzed him and Greg Norman and found that the time Jack Nicolas took before every swing was exactly the same regardless if he was up or down in the tournament. Greg Norman on the other hand took longer when he was winning and as he started falling behind, his pre-swing routine shortened. This is a mental breakdown and loss of focus resulting in a loss for Greg Norman. Imagination is one of the most powerful skills we have as humans. Most great thinkers in history give credence to imagination over IQ. Einstein used his vivid imagination and dreams to uncover the theory of relativity.

Psycho-Cybernetics is an excellent body of work that needs to be studied. Being able to trigger success on demand through focus and control of your self-image is a fascinating concept. The subconscious mind can programmed to aid you in crafting an unbelievable life.

I hope you have found this short summary useful. The key to any new idea is to work it into your daily routine until it becomes habit. Habits form in as little as 21 days. One thing you can take away from this book is the power of focus. I chose focus because you can start using a simple exercise called the Einstein Distraction drill. This will build your level of focus and allow you to master the techniques outlined in the book. Simple download the Einstein distraction drill from successprogress.com to gain the benefits of enhanced focus.

Source by Joe Mosed

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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The borescope is an optical device featuring a rigid or a flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between. Borescopes are used durin inspections for areas which are impossible to reach by other means. Depending on the tube, borescopes are either rigid or flexible. Rigid borescopes provide better image quality and are also cheaper than flexible models, but the problem with them is that can’t bend or twist so the object must be in a straight line. This makes rigid borescopes suitable for inspecting automotive cylinders, fuel injectors, hydraulic manifold bodies. The whole idea of all borescopes is that they allow you to discover the problem with a given device, without having to completely dismantle it and you can imagine how much time this can save you when you are dealing with an aircraft engine. Flexible borescopes can bend and access cavities with more complicted shapes.

In addition to that, borescopes can have magnifying capabilities to illuminate the work being inspected. The eyepiece of a borescope can be fitted with a coupler lens so that you can connect the borescope to a digital camera and record the images or view them on a large screen.

Special video borescopes have smaller imaging CCD chips replacing borescope optics. flexible video borescope insertion tube, with an articulating tip, houses a small CCD within its tip diameter. The year 2002 marked the introduction of fifth generation system case video borescope with live digital motion capture. Those models have USB fast digital communications port so that you can easily connect it to a PC. They also have a built-in removable storage media (memory card).

Video borescopes allows the viewer to to see more area and more distant or higher magnified detail, as opposed to a limited, cropped, darker traditional borescope optical image. Video borescopes also decrease the eye strain as it is much easier to watch higher resolution images on a big monitor with both eyes. Also, inspectors can record test results and perform instant image analysis and even apply multispectrum imaging, so you cans see wavelengths invisible to the naked eye.

Another thing to consider is that when you connect the borescope to the camera, some functions of the camera might not work properly like the auto focus or exposure features. It’s always a better idea if you can test all those things before you make any purchases. This is because some camera models sense the focus and light level through the lens, while others use external sensing (they will work correctly). To avoid this problem, buy a camera that has manual adjustment of the focus and exposure.

Source by Steve Gargin

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Cultures differ in how they communicate, how they use their time, and how they view themselves in terms of empowerment and decision making. These differences are likely to become apparent in business sessions with people from other countries. There has been considerable research done by anthropologists, psychologists and businesspeople on what these differences are and how we can learn to work effectively within other cultures, as will be described in this chapter. The main variables we will discuss are selected from the research of Edward Hall, Florence Kluckhohn, F.L. Strodtbeck, and Geert Hofestede.

Many business people are not prepared for some of the basic differences that they will experience when working with other cultures. Both businesswomen and businessmen will experience many culturally differing styles, mannerisms, and behaviors, and women in particular frequently find themselves wondering whether certain behaviors they are observing are culturally related or are related specifically to their gender. It is important to understand that these differences do exist, to learn to identify these differences, and to develop strategies to cope with them. There are many dimensions of cultural differences, and many which are unique to each country. This chapter will summarize some of the more common cultural differences that you may encounter in business, including variations in:

o Communication (high and low context)

o Use of time (polychronic and monochronic)

o Space (personal and physical)

o Environment (locus of control)

o View of time (past, present, future)

o Activity (being or doing)

o Power distance (hierarchy)

o Individualism and collectivism (group orientation or individual orientation)

High-Context and Low-Context Communication

Asians are very aware of slights to self image or status and are careful not to slight others. If an Asian “loses face,” which is equivalent to being socially discredited, he or she can no longer function effectively in the community. The reputation of a company or country is similarly affected. Accordingly, Asians will go to considerable lengths to avoid harming the reputations of their coworkers and countrymen. It is therefore important for Westerners to avoid criticism or ridicule, even if it may seem warranted. It usually makes the situation worse, since the criticized party may even seek revenge. While the revenge may be verbal, it can also be more concrete and damaging to you and your enterprise. Be careful to exercise diplomacy in any situation where criticism, discipline, differences of opinion, or anger is involved. (Palo Alto, California) (– from Asia for Women on Business)

I was in Germany on business, and after dinner one evening I wandered into an art gallery and spotted a very interesting painting. I asked the woman working there how much the piece cost, and she gave me a price. I looked at a few more works and asked her for several more prices, which she gave me. After strolling around the gallery, I went back to her and told her I would take the first painting I had inquired about. She said, “Oh, that one is sold.” Surprised, I pointed to my second choice, then my third choice, and she responded that they too were sold. Confused, I finally asked “Which paintings are not sold?” and she replied, “Oh, just that one there.” I asked her why she didn’t tell me that at the beginning. She looked surprised and said, “Well, you didn’t ask.” (Newark, New Jersey)

Cultures, as described by Hall, vary in their use of contextual information. In “low-context” cultures – such as the United States – people are relatively direct and explicit in their communications and social interactions, and they tend to conceive of life in a segmented, compartmentalized manner. In contrast, in “high-context” cultures – such as Japan – people interact in more covert and implicit manners.

More specifically, people in low-context societies usually require explicit information to feel comfortable making business decisions. However, people in high-context cultures do not usually rely upon a lot of research data or in-depth background information when making business decisions, but rather glean information from their many close relationships within their extensive networks of family, friends, colleagues and clients.

Americans (low-context) tend to be very direct in their style of communication. Americans generally say exactly what they mean, and try to be very clear and concise. In their desire to save time and clarify points, Americans may try to bring someone with an indirect style back to the point and clarify it frequently to stay focused. Emotion rarely comes into play overtly when Americans conduct business transactions, because they feel that business should be a factual exchange. Many high-context cultures dislike this American style of “straight” conversation, and Americans frequently miss the subtleties that exist in high-context cultures.


Tips for conducting business in high-context cultures:

o The U.S. and much of Europe are viewed as low-context cultures. These cultures place a higher value on verbal messages than do the high-context cultures in Asia and parts of Latin America, who view words as tools not to persuade, but rather harmonize. Be sensitive to subtle cues and do not assume that information will be directly verbalized.

o In a high-context culture, preserving harmony is very important. When conducting business, a Japanese or Latin American businessman may not say “no” or express disagreement overtly. Therefore you need to understand how the culture you are working with expresses disagreement so you can identify it. In many cases, disagreement will be implied when your foreign associate asks another question or uses an expression such as, “This is a difficult question to answer.”

o Low-context cultures may view the communication style of high-context cultures as a waste of time. Conversely, high-context cultures may find the low-context style of communication insensitive and rude. Be aware of how you come across and adjust your style if necessary.

Polychronic Time versus Monochronic Time

I had to enter late for my first business meeting in Milan, Italy, but my colleagues were aware of this and told me to drop in whenever I arrived. As I walked closer to the meeting room, I heard raised voices all talking over each other. I peeked in to see if I had the right meeting, and I saw what “polychronic” really means. Some of the Italian men were pacing the floor with cigarettes hanging out of their mouths; others were scribbling on the whiteboards and making wild gestures; they were talking over each other in multiple conversations in English and Italian at the same time; all the while espresso was percolating and being passed around. Finally someone noticed me, handed me a marker, pointed at the whiteboard, and said “Well, what are you waiting for? What do you think?!” (Dallas, Texas) (- from Europe for Women in Business)

The way people view time also varies in different cultures, as observed and described by researcher Hall. Monochronic time cultures, such as those of the United States and most Northern European countries, emphasize schedules, a precise reckoning of time, and promptness. Time is viewed as a discrete commodity. People in these cultures do one thing after another, finishing each activity before starting the next.

On the other hand, in polychronic cultures, such as those in Latin America and the Middle East, people tend to do more than one thing concurrently (or intermittently during a time period) and to emphasize the number of completed transactions and the number of people involved, rather than the adherence to a time schedule. Being on time is less important in polychronic cultures than in monochronic cultures.

Americans (monochronic) tend to think of time as something fixed in nature, which cannot be escaped. We tend to view activities and time in discreet segments or compartments, which are to be dealt with one at a time. It is not logical to have two activities going on at the same time. Americans are often frustrated when working with people from polychronic cultures who view time as something fluid, and who easily alter schedules to shifting priorities. In these situations meetings will start late, outside issues may interrupt business transactions, multiple activities may be scheduled at the same time, and adherence to deadlines may depend on the strength of the relationship.

INSERT FIGURE 5 Monochronic/Polychronic Views of Time

o Plan to spend a few extra days in the country you’re visiting, being aware that meetings likely won’t run on the schedule you’re used to. This way you won’t feel frustrated or pressured if the meetings extend overtime.

o Be on time for meetings even if you don’t expect them to start on time. This shows respect for your business associates.

o Expect meetings to start and end late and have many interruptions. Try not to allow it to disturb you. The time together with your foreign colleagues is important for the business even if it does not always feel productive.

o Many times you will need to allow meetings to run their course and resist the urge to get attendees back on track. This frequently happens when you are the guest of a firm overseas. If you are hosting the meeting at your firm you will have more flexibility to guide the meeting according to your standards.

Personal and Physical Space

I have found that different cultures have different rules toward personal space. In the U.S. we tend to feel comfortable talking about a handshake distance away from each other. In Japan the distance is greater – about a bow distance away. But when I work with Latin Americans the distance is much closer. I think it is important to be aware of these social differences so that you don’t move in on a person, forcing them to back away, or, alternatively, if someone moves closer to you, you don’t back away, giving them a feeling of distance. (Dayton, Ohio)

All cultures have unwritten rules on the distance members maintain from one another in face-to-face interactions, in lines, and in public places, according to Hall. Each one of us has a “comfort zone” – an area of physical space around us which we do not wish others to trespass. Understandingly, this distance is fluid and changes depending on who we’re dealing with; you will probably allow a family member to stand much closer than a business colleague. When doing international business, be aware that a member of one culture may be offended if someone from another culture, in which personal distance rules are different, violates the space rules by “invading” his or her space. Americans, for example, when working with a culture with closer comfort range may back away from people in conversations or cringe if they are touched. However, people from cultures accustomed to closer proximity may interpret this as cold or distant behavior.

Different cultures also have different views of physical space, such as what is appropriate in the office environment. For example, Americans tend to work in cubicles, have open offices, and feel that they can freely walk into colleagues’ offices without an appointment. Meanwhile, Germans use a number of heavy doorways, compartments, or corner offices to create barriers to easy entry. At the other extreme, the Japanese are accustomed to sitting directly across from one another in large offices without any walls. To the Japanese, Americans appear to have more barriers because of their cubicle structures and offices.


Here are some suggestions for working with cultures with different space rules:

o Recognize that each culture has its own view of personal and physical space. Try to understand what the norm is in the country you are visiting on business.

o If you feel your space is being invaded in another culture, try not to back away, because the host may view this behavior as cold and impersonal.

o People in cultures that use a closer range of space tend to touch each other more; this is not necessarily intended as a sexual gesture.

o In other cultures, more space between people may be required. Be sensitive to this and back away if necessary to provide your colleagues ample space.

o In some cultures, very limited gestures are used and there is no touching, even during greetings. Do not touch others or even impose yourself with a handshake.

Locus of Control

An American friend of mine recently opened a factory in Taiwan. Although he had lived there for some time and had married a Taiwanese woman, he ignored the prevalent Chinese belief system known as “Feng Shui” when planning his building. According to many Chinese and Taiwanese, following the many rules of Feng Shui can determine the future success of a company by telling builders such details as where to locate the building and which direction it should face, how doors and windows should face, where to put desks and chairs, and even which opening day will be most lucky. When my friend’s business opened, the workers would not enter the building because it faced in an unlucky direction and because they believed it was an unlucky opening day. He had to bring in a Feng Shui expert advisor and rebuild part of the building to face properly, then open again on a lucky day. (Palo Alto, California)

Research, especially that of Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, has shown that cultures operate with widely varying beliefs about their own power in a situation, relative to the power of their environment. Americans, for example, generally view themselves as being in control of their environment – having internal control. If they work hard they will overcome obstacles and direct the outcome of their destiny through initiative and drive.

People in some other cultures tend to believe that external forces – such as Feng Shui, fate, God, government, and nature — control what happens to them. In such cultures individuals believe that there is very little or nothing a person can do to control one’s own destiny, and thus much is left to fate. As a result, a culture may view business in terms of adjusting to unpredictable and uncontrollable environmental causes (“It is God’s will.”) rather than managing the process to make it more predictable.

INSERT FIGURE 7 Locus of Control

Here are some guidelines for working with cultures that view themselves as not having control of their environment:

o Listen to your counterpart and gather data on his perspective instead of jumping to conclusions or formulating an opinion.

o Be flexible to changes that might occur in circumstances that you can’t objectively understand.

o Be open to unpredictable situations which may be attributed to “God’s will” or some other external force that the individual believes is outside of his control.

Time: Past, Present and Future

I recall working in the purchasing department of a Silicon Valley firm where we bought computer monitors from various suppliers in Japan, Italy, Canada and Taiwan to make our products. As an American firm, we were very tied to production and delivery deadlines, and we let our suppliers know the dates the monitors needed to arrive to allow shipment of our products. I quickly learned that “due date” meant different things in different countries: While the Japanese orders came right on time, the first Italian shipment I ordered was over a week late and was not complete. I called the company to see what had happened, and the Italians were very surprised. “What’s a few days late?” they asked. “Next time maybe we will send it a few weeks early. And so the quantity is a little low this time? Next time maybe we’ll send a little more.” (Cupertino, California)

When you are developing a business relationship with another culture, it is important to understand their perception of time, deadlines and urgency. Often time is not perceived or valued in the same way as it is in the U.S. According to researchers Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, cultures may be oriented toward the past, the present or the future.

Americans, at one end of the spectrum, tend to emphasize the future, always anticipating that it will be bigger and better than the present. Americans tend to view change as a forward movement and therefore see change as desirable, and they tend to put a high priority on goals and accomplishments. In fact, many Americans would like to foresee the future so they could take advantage of impending opportunities or events.

Conversely, many cultures try to preserve the past. They tend to be pessimistic about change, and therefore wary of the future. This is particularly true in cultures that are conscious of their long histories and do not want to sever the connections to their past. Still other cultures would prefer to not see into the future so that it can’t then cause undo worry or pain, while other cultures see the individual as a victim of his environment, and therefore prefer to live day-to-day, or in the present.


Here are some tips on how to work with other cultures that do not view time in the future:

o Americans, as they speed toward the future, often appear patronizing or blunt in international business and this can increase sensitivities with colleagues from another culture.

o Take time to understand and appreciate the traditions and history of the culture you’re visiting. You can do this by making time to visit historic sites during your trip.

o Do not try to change the pace of work in another culture or comment on it negatively; rather, slow down and meet that pace.

Activity Levels

At my last firm I established many relationships with the Japanese. One particular relationship I cultivated over the phone, and then I had to go and visit my Japanese counterparts for the first time so that we could close a contract face-to-face, as they requested. In true American style, I was sent to Japan for only three days. My Japanese associates met me at the airport and took me out for a long dinner, saying they were so happy to meet their “good, hard-working, American friend.” In order to make full use of our time, I pulled out my agenda and list of questions to cover in the three days. They graciously took it and said not to worry. The next day I arrived at the local office very eager to get going on the contract, but found that the Japanese had arranged for their “good, hard-working, American friend” to tour the sites of Kyoto. So off we went, seeing the sites. That night they had an elaborate cocktail party and I met more members of the firm, but by this time I was very upset and worried that maybe they were not taking me seriously or that I would have to go home empty-handed. I mentioned my concerns to my counterpart, who said not to worry, and off we went to dinner. At dinner, the highest ranking person in the firm was present, and I was given very special treatment. He proposed a toast “to our very good, hard-working, American friend,” and they presented to me a signed contract and the necessary details from my agenda so that when I went home it looked as though we had worked very hard during my stay in Kyoto. (Santa Clara, California)

Cultures also vary in terms of activity levels, as described by researchers Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, ranging from slow and unplanned to tightly-scheduled and overly-planned. Americans tend to be very efficient and action-oriented, planning and completing many goals and activities, and enjoying accomplishments. We expect every meeting to have a purpose, every agenda to have a result. Other cultures, including Japan, allow more time for unplanned activities and emphasize relationships more than achievements. In such cultures, it is often the time you invest cultivating relationships that later may help overcome obstacles in business negotiations.


Here are some tips on working in cultures that emphasize relationships over activity level:

o Try to spend time developing relationships in business. Consider it a worthwhile use of your time.

o Relationship-emphasizing cultures often do business within a network of close friends and acquaintances. Develop a network of friends and establish trust.

o Be personable, empathetic and sincere. Many cultures will value these qualities more than a more businesslike demeanor.

o Schedule time for socializing while you are away on business. Expect to have dinners, drinks and perhaps some sightseeing with your hosts.

Source by Tracey Wilen

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Omar Mmubango owns Resources Corporation, a firm that provides both short and long-term Regulatory Affairs assets and to the pharmaceutical industry. As Regulatory Affairs executive, he developed, composed and executed method that standardized assessment processes of the sections of medicine application documents. Moreover, he authored control affirmation, modify, and manage protocols, and also a method for improving all six methods. Structured on his expert success he really offers his full time and even his determination in the direction of his job and in a position to allow an guidance and expertise on those who desires to know further on what he achieved in life.

He provides what he can contribute to the Pharmaceutical Industry and in a position to make it more powerful and with unity in the direction of the sector. He could generate this better and better with his aid to a powerful willpower towards his move in life. Not just through his career but also he is a humanitarian and an environmentalist. His assist to the community never ends to his profession thus it proceeds with a better concept through his advocacy on community organizations that he is a member of. He wants to inspire every individual to be aside of it. Preserving our surroundings clean and supporting human race is a greater contribution.

What do you know about him with his accomplishment and knowledge it is very remarkable. With his school instruction form University of Minnesota and finished Bachelor’s degree on Chemistry, likewise completed in an identical University on B.A. Public Health Affairs. And he has a Bachelor’s degree on Agricultural Science – Food Science and Technology in Wisconsin University and with a non-degree program on Pharmacology Toxicology.

He owns a little business that actually seems to be over the world of pharmaceutical sector that offers consulting work for those who wants to possess the understanding and expand further his comprehension to it. Through his occupation or work he never forget to have a helping hand, he is likewise a board member of a neighborhood organization in the direction of his advocacy on environmental pollution and the humanitarian cause from his neighborhood and across the globe. He is a man full of hopes and goals to be achieve.

Source by Micheal Lambert

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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A supplier is an important element of every business. A supplier could be a provider of good and or services which the business in turn resells or adds value to. The quality of suppliers a business has directly impacts or affects the quality of service delivery. It is important to select your supplier for the right reasons. While you may have once-off suppliers from time to time, it is riskier as there is no definite service level guarantee and long term commitment. Such suppliers are to be avoided as much as possible. In some companies, procurement is only done from a list of vetted registered suppliers who would have met stringent criteria and scrutiny. It is easy to find any kind of supplier. When you put considerations and conditions you can easily sift and select those suppliers who meet the standards and status of your organization. There is a supplier for every size and class of business. Not every supplier that exists is a genuine partner to rely on and build your business on. Below are considerations and tips that will help you get the best suppliers to partner with your business.

1. Supplier Capacity and Reliability – In what way is the organization you are considering as a supplier capable of meeting your needs. How long have they been in operation? What is their production capacity and level of pressure they are already under from their existing customers? Consider the reliability and track record the company may have. You may need to speak to other customers who have already started using the services of this particular supplier to get a second or third opinion. Without traceable references you are left to assume that the supplier is reliable. Also consider the levels of stock that the supplier keeps at any given time. This will indicate to you whether your order will be fulfilled instantly the next time you order. Some suppliers do not even keep stock, they only order from their own suppliers once they get an order in which case delays are experienced which could affect how you offer services to your own clients. It is important to note that the reliability on lack of it on the part of your suppliers has a direct impact on the business’s reliability. You cannot support your customers fully with unreliable suppliers whom you are not sure to find in the same place the next time you visit them. Take time to cut out those who let you down constantly.

2. Corporate value system – The value system of a business tells you what they believe in and their general work ethic. Always study the value systems and choose suppliers who seem to live according to their value in real life. Values become the habits and character definition of the people serving you. However, some suppliers simply hang values on the wall and that is where it all ends. A company would rather have 3 values which they advocate for and live by than have ten flowery values which remain imaginary not real. Are the values in any way telling you anything about the service delivery, the customer focus etc? Find a supplier who matches your values and beliefs. A supplier who does not cut corners in a bit to make a sale. A supplier who would rather lose the order than supply imitations purporting to be supplying originals.

3. Quality of products – Most organizations thrive because they offer quality products. You may have sales people who are very jovial, with a positive attitude, smiling all the time but if the product range you are dealing with leaves a lot to be desired in terms of quality then your service mars the business growth totally. No one will ever want to resell products that are not tried and tested. One thing most customers avoid is having to deal with the comebacks or return as this impacts on profitability and reputation. I have noticed that each time I have provided good and services to a customer and there are some concerns and comebacks, I have had to work overtime to retain that customer than in cases where I have given a product or service of high quality. In such cases customers have gone out and spoken well of my business and in turn became my silent sales people.

4. Credit terms – The payment options that supplier provide help them to retain and serve their customers satisfactorily. Most customers are not keen on partying with cash on the very day they receive the goods or services. Customers require time to process payment and be able to strengthen their cash flows through these legal delays in payment. While credit terms are attractive, some customers tend to abuse such facilities by over extending their credit payments. If you are selecting a supplier, always agree on reasonable credit line such as 7 to 14 days which is not too short or too long. It gives a win-win scenario. Realize that you also may have customers who require the same credit facility. In cases where suppliers refuse to give you such terms, then you also need to tighten your cash-flow position by ensuring that your customers pay as you deliver the goods. I have seen companies collapse at the weight of having to finance other businesses all because they simply wanted orders and debtors. You rather not have the order if you are not getting terms and your customers are putting pressure for terms. You can only give away what you have been given.

5. Proximity and Distance – This is an important consideration. You could have suppliers on other continents outside of your own. Realize that there is a delay in shipment that occurs between the time of placing an order and getting the order into your own stock room. You may need to keep contact with suppliers that also close in case you run out and receive urgent orders. In you manage your imports properly you may be able to get all your material from other continents. In that scenario distance ceases to be an issue. The advantage however of dealing with smaller local suppliers is that you have a backup plan and in the event of returns, it is an easier process to get product back to the supplier without huge transportation costs

6. Competitive Pricing – Businesses desire to be profitable. After all, the reason why businesses exist is to make a solid consistent profit for the benefit of the investor and all stakeholders. One way to increase on profits is to ensure that you do not unnecessarily purchase your inputs from expensive suppliers. Having registered suppliers and also a consistent relationship with existing suppliers allows the customer to leverage on pricing. They can negotiate for bulk purchase discounts. In most companies, even after selecting a pool of suppliers to deal with both locally and abroad, there is a policy for procurement staff to get 3 quotations for the same product from different suppliers. The $5 difference in price does make a difference in your pricing of the same product. The goal is to ensure they get the best pricing possible so as to forward the same benefit to the end user.

7. Warranty Issues – It is one thing to supply a product and it is a totally different ball game to ensure that there is valid warranty on it. Make it clear as you purchase the product that you want warranty card or certificate. You can only give warranty to your clients based on the warranty given to you by the supplier. This is where paying attention to detail is of paramount importance. You must be able to return the product if it fails to deliver what the manufacturer claims to be the proper life and performance capacity. The warranty must not be assumed but be in writing. If you have bought from the local channel, it is easier to process your warranty than in situations where you go to alternative channels or markets. I had a rude awakening once when I established a supplier in United States of America while running a business in Zimbabwe. It took 2 weeks for the huge machine to get to my office. The machine was delivered to the client immediately. After two weeks the huge machine failed and had to come back to my office. Because I had not bought the machine through the established channels, I had to ship the machine back to America. The cost of shipping alone equated to the profit I had received a few weeks earlier. It is not worth it; rather focus on a channel that honors international warranty.

8. After Sales Support – Depending on the nature of product you intend to be procuring from a supplier, you need to establish what happens in the event that they have sold you the items and you now need support and technical assistance. Always assess the capacity to support you after the sale has been done. Likewise you also need to develop or hire skills to ensure they offer the first level of support and maintenance of the equipment you are selling.

9. Up to date Product Range – How up to date is the product range that your supplier is giving you. There are always new products being developed daily if your supplier sticks to the old range, soon enough your company will be left behind. Technology advancements have ensured that new releases of better, faster, more efficient and cost effective products come on the market. The goal is to make more modern products available to the market at competitive pricing. This is made possible as companies invest in research to ensure they make the same products if not better at a lower cost all the time. Sometimes it is good to partner with a supplier who has a broader range of choices than where one range is being marketed. The broader the range the more the choice you have available to yourself to choose from.

10. Lower Lead times – systems efficiency – When choosing suppliers you have to consider how much longer you normally have to wait for your order or for queries to be responded to. Some companies grow to levels where they can no longer give individual promises to customers and stick by them. You are left unsure about whether upon placement of an order you will get it instantly, after 3 days or 3 weeks. Your own customers usually dictate the lead times they need from you. In the event that you are experiencing delays in your service, endeavor to communicate with the customer as much as possible to ensure that lead time issues do not affect their loyalty to your services. Partner with suppliers who have efficient systems. I usually get annoyed when I have to wait for 20 minutes as the red tape in a company is laid out. All I want in most cases is to pay, get a product with my receipt or invoice. If the supplier’s internal processes are that you

Source by Rabison Shumba

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Humans are no different from other animals in the way we are aware of danger. Our body responses all go onto alert and all our senses our heightened. The similarity ends there. When the animal senses that the danger has passed, it gives a shudder or shake, and discharges the toxicity of the adrenalin surge. Humans have become numbed to the sense of the danger passing, they do not always discharge the adrenalin surge, and sometimes remain in the state of active alert indefinitely. Our body cannot survive forever in this state and we eventually deplete our adrenals, and collapse through exhaustion.

We are the only mammal that does not abort a foetus when we experience trauma. All other pregnant mammals will abort when they become traumatised. Human babies are the only ones that are born already traumatised. Smoking, alcohol, nutritional or environmental toxicity entering through the umbilical cord will cause shock and overstimulation to the foetus. We are born on active alert, we are born already living in the sympathetic mode of the nervous system.

We have an autonomic nervous system that runs through the spine from the brain linking it to all parts of our body. Messages are sent via neurons through the nerves to the brain centre and that need is instantly responded to.

If it is a conscious need, such as the need to eat, make a telephone call, or take a walk, we are activating the sympathetic nervous system. It requires a conscious energy. If the need is a natural body function, such as digesting food, breathing and the millions of internal functions that happen daily in our body without our knowledge, this is the parasympathetic nervous system.

In order for our body to function optimally we need to have a balanced autonomic nervous system. That means a perfect balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic where the sympathetic only activates when called for. If we are performing in sympathetic mode, our parasympathetic nervous system is taking a rest, and when we need our body to function in parasympathetic mode we give our sympathetic nervous system a rest.

If we are living tranquil lives and are at peace with ourselves this can happen naturally. However, most of us are living out our undischarged trauma patterns that cause us to live in sympathetic mode all the time, undermining the vitally important job of the parasympathetic.

Imagine a life in sympathetic mode. Either we are on active alert, constantly on the lookout for danger, or we have become numb and immobilized. How many people do we know who are just like this? So many children are described as hyperactive, they are allergic to many foods, they are bored and disruptive and they need constant stimulation. Adults have high powered jobs which give them constant surges of adrenalin, which excites them. They become addicted to these adrenal surges and can only function under intense pressure. When they get home they collapse.

Our society today provides for those who are living in sympathetic mode. Everything needs to be fast. Stress, the rat race, action movies and cartoons stimulate them. They love theme parks, with roller coasters and high adrenal activities. By the time they are forty they are burnt out.

The other kind, the immobilized person living in the sympathetic mode, is just as bad. This person is so numb that he is living “unconsciously”. He or she has had to create a persona for himself, a learned behaviour pattern just so that he can function. Hence he reacts in exactly the same way to a given situation and cannot cope with “new” decisions or changes in his life.

These other kind are common and we probably all know some of them. They “switch off” when asked for opinions or to participate in a discussion about something new. They can readily talk about what they have read in the newspaper, or what they have learned, but cannot explore their own feelings or opinions.

So while we are living in sympathetic mode, what has happened on a parasympathetic level? Our parasympathetic nervous system simply shuts down. We lose the ability to properly digest our food and other normal bodily functions perform less efficiently.

We build up impacted faecal matter because of our difficulty in eliminating naturally and we compromise all our natural growth functions. We “hold on” to our toxins and our old traumas.

Colon Health

We have a need to feed our stimulated systems, we feel frustrated in our “down time” and fidget. Our bodies cannot settle, we cannot relax, and we are hard to live with. We suffer from allergies, hay fever, asthma and numerous environmental diseases. The body sees everything we eat and breathe as a poison and our immune system is constantly attacking the invaders. Being in sympathetic mode affects the pH balance so we live in a more acid state. With our digestive system already so out of balance, it is impossible to restore the balance simply through diet.

How does this impact our healing process? When the body is in sympathetic mode it is impossible to heal. This is why I am giving you such a detailed story about what goes on “behind the scenes”. In order for us to function at all levels and in all areas of our lives we need to address the nervous system and balance it.

How many of us have spent huge sums of money following the latest breakthrough advice in healing? Going on raw food diets which appear to be beneficial because of the high levels of nutrients, but the body is still unable to digest properly. Taking large quantities of supplements has the same effect and may make us feel better on a superficial level. But nothing really works. All this does is add more and more load to the liver.

At each step we have probably been getting a little nearer to the truth, but the truth has not been clear before. Cleansing and clearing out our toxicity allows the truths we are looking for to become available; resting and rebuilding was what we needed to enable us to do the next step.

Now, balancing our nervous system will make that next step much easier. When we are ready for the next step it suddenly becomes apparent. We are opening up to deeper and deeper ways of real healing, healing that can work, processes which are written about in these newsletters when we are ready to trust them.

If we have lived in this place all our life, it is all we know. We have no idea what it feels like to be living in comfortably in the body. Fear has taken that away, and when we can deal with feeling really safe in our body we can let go of those fears. Only then can we invite into our lives, the one emotion that will allow us to blossom into our potential. The single most important thing we are all looking for in our lives is LOVE. When a baby is loved from the moment it is invited into this world, its entire nervous system can develop in a healthy way. As adults we need to find our own way of allowing trust and love into our lives so that our nervous system can settle and function as it should.

Letting Go

We all want to move forward in our lives. Stagnation on the outside means stagnation on the inside. Letting go of our defunct ways is the key.

People use products to help them eliminate and let go of toxins from the colon and detox the body. We are very good at holding on though. We like our old behaviour patterns. They are familiar and comforting. What will happen if we let go? Will we survive? Those parasites have become familiar, they’ve become our friends. Those old patterns have served us well in the past but what was it that initiated the pattern? Let’s explore the word “behaviour pattern”. The very phrase conjures up something we have created so that we “know” how we should behave. I believe in being natural. Looking at habits is always a good place to start.

If we are truly conscious then we respond differently in each situation, we do not have to call on our memory to ask how we usually react. Often a pattern was set by a traumatic event in the past, an event that is no longer relevant but the “baby” or “child” part of us is still feeling unsafe and has to call on a tried and tested way of dealing with a similar situation.

These old patterns no longer serve us. Not if we are living in the present. There is no need to bring our past with us, but that “little one” who is holding onto that pattern will always be a part of who we are. We want to bring our little one with us but not the traumatic event. Seek out the safety in your life, today. Know that your loved ones are around you; know what your resources are. When you can identify those feelings of anxiety, look for something that makes you feel safe. Feel that safety, name the feeling, hug the baby part of you, apologise for what happened and let go.

So let’s get back to the detox, and Natural Balance. Now that we have decided to clear our old addictions and really let go we can have more success with Maestro, Natural Balance and Natural Cleanse. We have a lot to let go of.

If we do not do this work, our old patterns that have long outlived their purpose stay with us forever, because we have not discharged the trauma. A newborn baby cannot express pain and trauma. Until recently it was thought that babies do not feel pain. Even circumcision operations were not performed using anaesthetic. Can you imagine anyone putting a baby through this archaic and unnecessary procedure? Yes, of course, every father who has had this done to him. Parents have their own wounds to deal with. Children always amplify the parents’ wounds and so the cycle continues until we say “Enough”. When trauma goes unacknowledged und undischarged we remain in our sympathetic nervous systems for the rest of our lives.

Without truly letting go, we will only ever heal at a superficial level. This is why the supplement market is so huge. It keeps us feeling good at that superficial level. So do drugs like Valium and Prozac, but they do not heal. They only work when you are taking them, and then they dump their toxins in the liver, making your body work overtime. Without safety and good resources we will only live at a superficial level. Make today the day you decide to Live Your Life.

When we can balance the nervous system, everything in our lives can change. Living in a settled place in the body allows miracles to happen and our lives to flow easily. When we are in active alert, we cannot even see what is happening around us that is good, we only look for the danger. The danger is only a perception, only a belief that many greedy people have used for their own gain. If we are not awake other people take advantage of us. Active alert does not mean awake, it only means looking for danger. Awake means aware and enlightened. It means conscious, peaceful and in harmony with the planet we live on. It means knowing what is happening in your body, and not making rational, logical decisions from the head. It means listening to our body and each other. It means love.

Source by Phylipa Dinnen

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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Are you aware of what friction is? How or what is it used in everyday life? Well per a Friction for kids, they say that you can find friction anywhere of an object that comes into contact with each other, for example, if a car needs to stop at a stop sign, it slows down in order for the friction between of the brake and wheels to stop. So to speak the forces that act in opposite direction from the way an object want to slide. Moral of all, fiction are forces that contribute to the world every day.

For instance, the term fictions define its self as the resistance forming by two objects sliding against each other. Let me give you examples of the understanding of sliding friction, the surface deformation of objects, the roughness/smoothness of the surface of the objects, the original speed of either object, the size of the object, the amount of pressure on either object or the adhesion of the surface, a person sliding down a slide is an example of sliding friction as well. Having these attentions frictions has many situations where they exist and where the sliding friction creates residences.

Now that you have an understanding of the Sliding Friction let me explain another everyday sliding friction. Knowing that we are in cold winter weather some of these you might relate to you and I bet you had no idea that fiction was involved within these actions. Rubbing both your hands together to create the heat, a sled sliding across the snow or ice, Skis sliding against snow, a coaster sliding against a table, a washer machine pushing along a floor, an iron being pushed across the material. Now that you have a better understanding of what sliding Friction is so when you come around them think about how things really work and not just happen because you think it happens.

In conclusion, now knowing what friction is you might just stumble in one of these examples or similar examples in the future and you will be able to analyze them correctly, hey! you could even share this with someone else and little do they know they will think you’re a genius. However, the coined term friction helps us make the world a safer place to live and certainly increase our productivity along with having a fun environment in our living conditions.

Source by Paula Michel Ayala Arizmendi

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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There are many ways to fix PS3 error codes without sending your console away. Some of these are quick fix methods and some of them require a bit of work on your part. Regardless most of them fix PS3 error codes quicker and easier than official methods. Some of them may require you to do mechanically related things so make sure you’re comfortable with these methods before attempting.

The most common method to fix PS3 error codes is to check all of the cables and connections to the system. This is standard with most electronics and can solve many issues relating to a weak connection. It’s often the most overlooked and underappreciated method of fixing a system.

The next thing that you can do to repair PS3 error codes is to do a hard reset of the PlayStation 3 itself. This can fix most software update errors and restore functionality to your system. This is another method that is often overlooked due to its simplistic nature and ease of use.

If this does not fix PS3 error codes on your system then you may have a hardware failure or overheating problem. The PlayStation 3 is a very powerful machine and consequently generates a great deal of heat. If the cooling system isn’t working properly then you’ll need to repair it in order to get PS3 error codes fixed.

If you need to fix PS3 then there are a few things that you should try. First make sure that all of you’re audio video cables are plugged in to the correct ports and that your power cord is plugged in correctly. If this doesn’t fix PS3 error codes then you can do a hard reset of the system itself. If your problem continues to persist after this you may need to work on the cooling system or repair a piece of defective hardware.

If you’re unlucky the problem cannot be solved after trying out the methods above, most likely you would need to send your PS3 back to Sony for repair. It might take you 6 weeks and $150 just to repair a simple PS3 firmware defective.

Sounds unreasonable right? That is why so many frustrated players choose to learn how to fix PS3 problems themselves at home.

Source by Gabriel Fox

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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The book under review ‘World Vedic Heritage – A History of Histories’ is written by a great research scholar P.N.Oak after years of research on this subject.

This was written way back in 1984 and I have read it long back with wonder. Some of the topics like Taj Mahal was a Hindu Temple, Vedic stanzas are in Koran, Aurangazeb’s grave is in a Goddess Temple-Yard etc. attracted me very much. While I am reading this book now, still it fascinates me.

Even though the subjects are controversial, the author has given ample authoritative evidence for the readers.

The author says that the dome of the Taj Mahal in Agra, near New Delhi, the capital of India, has lotus petals. The lotus petals in inlay-work girding its base, the inverted lotus on top of the dome and the trident pinnacle are all Hindu, Vedic features indicating that the fifth generation Mogul emperor, Shahjahan only requisitioned the Tejo Mahalaya Shiva Temple.

Most of the area in around the main building is under Archaelogical Department’s control and no visitor is permitted there. Oak says that there is ample evidence to prove his point in those areas.

The book has 92 chapters in 1312 pages. The Vedic culture in the East, Vedic past of Japan, China, Korea and Manchuria, West Asia etc. are dealt in detail by the author. Supporting his theory, the author has given 56 photos also in the book.

The book makes an interesting reading. It is argued in the book that the first immediate reaction of a large section of the public on reading an unheard of thesis of the kind expounded in this book is likely to be one of shock, disbelief and rejection. But the cogency of the argument, the continuity of the thread of the history and the comprehensive evidence are likely to be persuasive factors which may ultimately make the theme more agreeable and acceptable.

A detailed bibliography is also attached at the end of the book quoting 114 sources.

The reader may draw his own conclusion after digesting all the facts put forth in the book. Lastly, after going through the contents of this book, one will get the impression that the Indian history must definitely be re-written correctly.

Purushottam Nagesh Oak (Birth: 2 March 1917; Death: 4 December 2007), commonly referred to as P. N. Oak, was an Indian writer, notable for his Hindu-centric brand of historical revisionism. Oak’s “Institute for Rewriting Indian History” issued a quarterly periodical called Itihas Patrika in the 1980s. He has written more than twelve books. He was on the editorial staffs of the newspapers Hindustan Times and The Statesman. He joined in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India and served as class I officer for a long time.

In all, those who are interested in Indian History, should read this book without fail.

Source by Santhanam Nagarajan

May 1, 2017 0 comment
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