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May 17, 2017

Nowadays E-Commerce is the buzz word. Although it is omnipresent but we never realize its importance primarily because it is known by different names. People do site promotion, SEO, affiliate marketing, and many other things but the goal is same i.e. to get clients and sell the products or services of the company. ‘E’ is just a medium to transact online. I will be listing some peculiar features of e-commerce which makes it considerably appreciable.

Ubiquity – In traditional commerce, a marketplace is a physical place we visit in order to transact. For example, television and radio are typically directed to motivating the customer to go someplace to make a purchase. E-commerce is ubiquitous, meaning that it is available just about everywhere at all times. It liberates the market from being restricted to a physical space and makes it possible to shop from your desktop. The result is called a market space. From consumer point of view, ubiquity reduces transaction costs – the cost of participating in a market. To transact, it is no longer necessary that you spend time and money traveling to a market. At a broader level, the ubiquity of e-commerce lowers the cognitive energy required to complete a task.

Global Reach – E-commerce technology permits commercial transactions to cross cultural and national boundaries far more conveniently and effectively as compared to traditional commerce. As a result, the potential market size for e-commerce merchants is roughly equal to the size of world’s online population.

Universal Standards – One strikingly unusual feature of e-commerce technologies is that the technical standards of the Internet and therefore the technical standards for conducting e-commerce are universal standards i.e. they are shared by all the nations around the world.

Interactivity – Unlike any of the commercial technologies of the twentieth century, with the possible exception of the telephone, e-commerce technologies are interactive, meaning they allow for two-way communication between merchants and consumer.

Information Density and Richness – The Internet vastly increase information density. It is the total amount and quality of information available to all market participants, consumers and merchants. E-commerce technologies reduce information collection, storage, communication and processing costs. At the same time, these technologies increase greatly the accuracy and timeliness of information, making information more useful and important than ever. As a result, information becomes plentiful, cheaper and of higher quality. Information richness refers to the complexity and content of a message.

Personalization – E-commerce technologies permit personalization. Merchants can target their marketing messages to specific individuals by adjusting the message to a person’s name, interests and past purchases. The technology also permits customization. Merchants can change the product or service based on user’s preferences or prior behavior.

E-commerce technologies make it possible for merchants to know much more about consumers and use this information more effectively than ever before. Online merchants can use this information to develop new information asymmetries, enhance their ability to brand products, charge premium prices for high quality service and segment the market into an endless number of subgroups, each receiving a different price.

Source by Shailendra Sial

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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With more and more devices and electronics being designed to make use of wireless networks for network connectivity, it’s necessary to evaluate network data cabling before setting up a new device or system in your home or office. In many cases, a network that makes of use physical cabling will be more robust and secure network than a one based upon wireless technology. Read on for a few of the advantages of network data cabling, as well as some of the disadvantages with respect to wireless networks.


One of the primary advantages of network data cabling is that they provide a higher level security than wireless networks. Although measures of security including passwords and protected Wi-Fi networks help to improve the security for wireless networks, they are never as secure as network cabling systems.

Reduced Interference

Proper installation of network data cabling helps to dramatically reduce the interference caused by electrical and radio frequency, known as electromechanical interference and radio frequency interference, respectively. Wireless networks are extremely susceptible to radio frequency interference problems. This is not the case with shielded network data cabling and fiber optic cable.

Consistent Connection

One of the biggest concerns that many wireless network users have is the inconsistency of the connection. As data transfer is performed, a lapse in the network connection caused by a momentary lapse in the wireless signal or electrical interference can effectively negate a great deal of work, slow down the transfer rate considerably, or introduce unacceptable levels of data corruption. Fortunately, network cabling provides a consistent connection that does not suffer from these momentary lapses.


Although not all network cabling will provide a speedy connection, the newer types of twisted pair data cabling can operate at data rates up to 10 gigabit. Fiber optic cabling transmits light rather than standard data information, making it optimal for high speed usage and extended ranges.


One major disadvantage of a network data cabling setup is the mobility while connected to the network. Wireless networks provide excellent mobility for electronic devices because there are no wires to hinder movement, within the range of the transceiver. Unfortunately, users must be directly connected to a network cabling system in order to take advantage of the data transfer possibilities.

If more than one physical computer connection is required when physical network data cabling is used, it’s normally a simple matter of connecting a router or hub to the network cabling already installed and connecting network devices to the hub or router. Each hub or router can support up to 255 devices.

Wiring Setup

Whereas wireless networks are relatively easy to set up, a physical network data cabling system must be installed prior to use. This means that the cable must be routed and terminated properly at both ends. This normally means obtaining access to crawl spaces and the interiors of walls as well as cutting holes in walls.

Source by Wayne Connors

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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Initial assessment is an essential part of fair and effective admission procedures. It is used by governing bodies to determine the level of a learner whether or not he/ she is qualified for acceptance and/or to determine the level of the learner. An assessment may be formal or informal. Formal may include telephone interview, essay, and portfolio. Informal may include group critiquing and self assessment.

Advantages of initial assessment include the following:

Makes pupils feel they belong to the learning culture

Reduces pupils’ anxiety

Provides the necessary information for the careful planning of learning activities needed

Determines individual learning needs

An appropriate, challenging task/goal is given or negotiated in advance so students know what’s coming.

However there are also negatives or pitfalls of initial assessment. Evidence (Heywood, l989) suggests that some traditional methods of assessment (e.g. tutor marked examinations) are unreliable: those results are not consistent with repeated applications. Several studies have shown that not only can the same candidate be given different marks by two different tutors but also the same tutor may give different marks to the same candidate when the same paper is remarked (Heywood, op cit). In fact, one of the major arguments for reforming assessment in higher education is the unreliability of some of the more traditional assessment practices. It is hardly fair for tutors to question whether students can reliably assess themselves when it has been demonstrated that tutor-marked assessments are themselves prone to a lack of consistency.

There are also difficulties that may hinder the purpose of initial assessment. Prior knowledge about a specific subject is a vital consideration. Knowledge about the medium of learning such as English language could also make or break what is expected from the learner.

Various methods are used for assessments.

1.Essay: Strengths may include: for the learner; able to demonstrate writing ability; chance to express the knowledge about a specific subject. Negatives: limited knowledge about a given subject; language barriers such as grammar and idioms. Validity and reliability is according to given standards by a specific teacher/organization.

2. Oral test: Positives: precise and direct to the point, good for learners with excellent speaking ability. Negatives: limited knowledge about language, specific subject. Reliability is slim. Validity depends upon every requirement.

3. Objective test (multiple choice): Positives: reliable and straight to the point of for a chosen subject. Answers do not change or vary according to standards.

Negatives: Memorisation and understanding for a particular subject matter might be tedious for many students.

4. Tutorials: Positives: intensive and precise, the attachment between the tutor and the learner to enhance learning. Negative: time constraints

5. Skills test: Positives: may be reliable according to given standards. Negatives: It is subjective.

Methods could be formative and summative. Formative assessment is continuous checking and consolidation of learning process. It is used to determine if there is a learning going on and to consolidate individual needs to prosper in learning. Formative assessment is helpful as a tool to determine the strengths and areas for developments not only of the individual learner but also of the teacher and all the other bodies such as providers and educational organization to check whether or not a scheme of learning is working. However a formative assessment could hinder progress for some pupils who don’t have or lacking in coping mechanisms against their more brilliant peers. Summative assessment is a tool on the other hand to assess if there was learning in the whole process. It is vital to check every end of a session or course to assess a learner’s progress. Individual learning needs and areas of developments may be highlighted in every summative assessment. Both formative and summative assessment might be questioned for reliability and validity.

By evaluating ways of planning, negotiating and recording appropriate learning goals with targets, a learning environment is on the right tract.

The use of tutorials and ILPs; to monitor learners’ progress and set targets need evaluation. Through tutorials a teacher could have the chance to talk about strengths and areas of developments of a learner. This is also a good way to negotiate concerns like projects, assignments and aims regarding learning. In my experience as an English teacher, one to one tutorial was a very helpful scheme to check about a learner’s progress. My awareness about what went wrong and what went well with a learner could give me pointers to reconsider for targets for the student’s development. Individual learning process is also a scheme to have awareness about what is going on in the learning environment. ILP is a device set to record and to track a learner’s progress. If there are targets such as assignment due date, areas for development concerns, activities missed, an ILP is a handy tool. Having a recorded tract is a responsible way that could be used for future planning. If a teacher has a record for all assessments used to measure a student’s learning process, problems like priority student, negligence, etc. could be avoided.

Inclusive learning is necessary in every learning environment. Individual needs of students must be considered to maximise expected learning outcomes. Students with physical and mental disabilities do not justify a learning failure. The following are considerations for inclusive learning.

  1. Coloured paper for dyslexia
  2. Peer support/group work engaged
  3. Differentiated questioning and differentiated tutor support

In my experience as an English teacher for foreign students in my country

it was very important for me to consider the students with learning difficulties by giving them tutorial support when necessary. Physical disabilities such as eyesight must also be taken into account. The arrangement of the classroom however simple it may seem as a problem must be considered for situations like this. Working in groups could enhance the confidence and self esteem of students who find it difficult to cope with the stronger students. Giving specific tasks to students to highlight their strengths could also enhance inclusion for those who feel less capable. I always choose these methods for inclusive learning because I find them helpful especially during an activity. Asking easier questions to less active students also promote inclusive learning. (Refer to appendix for inclusive learning activities)

Teaching methods vary for every teacher and situation derived from differentiation among learners. The following are teaching methods that I used and will use in my future teachings.

Teach/test teach and the following activities may be used:

1. Watching a video film

2. Book based exercises

b. Demonstration with the following activities:

1. Hands on

2. Role play

3. Listening activities followed by group discussions/work

c. Private tutorials with these activities:

1. Question and answer

2. speaking/listening/writing/materials with actualisation like visit to places such as restaurants, theatres, etc.

Again, teaching methods can be differentiated by individual needs such as coloured paper for learners with dyslexia, differentiation of questions for students with learning difficulties; mental and physical. Individual support has always been my consideration as well. In the two lessons I did for the course “English language for beginners,” I chose methods teach test teach for all the activities I did. (refer to appendices evidence: learning plan.) I always find it helpful to give exercises for every topic tackled to have an immediate assessment if there was learning that happened. Immediate feedback and corrections could be given through monitoring and answered exercise materials. (For other teaching methods, see appendix)

There are ways in which session plans can be adapted to the individual needs of learners. These ways include coloured paper for learners with dyslexia, sitting arrangement that suits learners’ needs for group work, etc. differentiated questioning, extension activity offered, visual materials adjusted for learners with eyesight problems, audio adjustment for those with hearing impairment, safety and convenience in the classroom for those with phobias and physical impairments. Lesson plans must be fair for every learner. There are learners with learning difficulties and changes in lesson planning like differentiated questioning, encouragement of group work, and differentiation of expected aims with the use of all, most and some to classify learning outcomes. In my experience as a teacher, checking of prior knowledge is also a vital part to measure what is expected from the students, and then the differentiation for questions to check if there is learning is easier because awareness about the learners’ subject knowledge is already achieved.

Feedback is a very important element to help inform practice. Feedback is a tool to consolidate learning outcomes achieved. As a teacher I use as a practice to incorporate feedback after every session or lesson. Question and answer and discussions about errors committed by learners are checked on white board to promote awareness and learning aims achieved. For the learners who did a good performance is always given recognition through nice remarks such as “well done, very good and you deserve a commendation” to promote confidence. For an extension activity I always use in my specialist subject for a feedback to error corrections heard and noticed through monitoring during exercises and discussions and group activities.

Professor John Hattie found that Feedback has more effect on achievement than any other factor. Professors Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam of Kings College London spent four years studying and reviewing research into feedback which is closely linked to ‘formative assessment’. They concluded in agreement with Professor Hattie that formative assessment has a huge effect on learning quality. It has been found to add the equivalent of two grades to students’ achievement if done very well. According to Geoff Petty (2004) “In Teaching Today I try to summarise Black and William’s main findings, by saying feedback should include:

Medals: This is information about what a student has done well, e.g. ‘Your paragraphs and punctuation are good’ or ‘That’s good evidence’ written in the margin next to a well made point by the student. Grades and marks are measurements not medals. Medals are information about what exactly was done well.

Missions: This is information about what the student needs to improve, correct, or work on. It is best when it is forward looking and positive. e.g. ‘try to give more evidence for your views’ or ‘Use more paragraphs to show the structure of your writing’. Again, measurements such as grades do not usually give this information.

Clear goals: the medals and missions need to be given in relation to clear goals usually best given in advance.

To promote inclusive learning in my two learning plans, I used group work and role play to promote equal learning opportunities to active and non-active learners. Again, consideration for students with learning difficulties is vital.

According to Geoff Petty (Active learning 2004), we learn by doing. Research shows that active learning is much better recalled, enjoyed and understood. Active methods require us to ‘make our own meaning’, that is, develop our own conceptualisations of what we are learning. During this process we physically make neural connections in our brain, the process we call learning. Passive methods such as listening do not require us to make these neural connections or conceptualisations. Active methods also:

• Give the learner feedback on their incomplete understandings and encourage them fix this, for example by helping each other.

• Give the teacher feedback on which learners understand, and who needs help

• Develop thinking skills such as analysis, problem solving, and evaluation

• Help learners to use their learning in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance

I believe that active learning is a method of inclusive learning that is exercised through group work and feedback.

The use and innovation of modern technology is vital to achieve learning aims and goals. I find starboard very helpful because of the many things you could do with it such as internet based learning. Automatic saving of lessons and students’ work could be immediately saved and be printed for future purposes. However, there are some pitfalls about the use of such. Electronic problems could happen that is why paper based and/ or a back up is always a must. Learners who are visual could find the use of starboard a remarkable one. Kinaesthetic learners will find it interesting as well. (see appendix paragraph 8 for inclusive resources I used with my students in my specialist area)

My specialist subject is ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). It is then vital for functional skills such as writing, speaking and listening to be incorporated to achieve maximum learning. Essay, discussion, debates, theses, assignments, oral test, interview, portfolio and other methods to go with learning require a minimum knowledge or core to achieve certain standards for specific learning environments.

The ongoing literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills which are integral to my own specialist area, ESOL make me a better equipped educator because these areas widen my horizons to know better how to meet my learners’ needs. By knowing what my strengths and areas of developments are, it is easier to relate to students’ needs as well.

In my first micro teach in Diploma in Teaching in the Lifelong Learning sector,

to promote inclusion, I used handouts (with visualiser for checking) and white board for group activities for grammar test to be able to achieve inclusive learning. Checking and feedback were also done in groups to promote inclusion. However there were remarks from my peers as my students for not considering prior knowledge in the grammar activity.

This evaluation made me realise to consider prior subject knowledge and do not assume in any way that all learners have the same level of knowledge about a specific area. Learning outcomes will always be achieved successfully through inclusion and active learning.

Observation is a two way process, by the teacher to the learner and vice versa. Observation has been ongoing for me since the course started. I observe my tutors on how they manage to cater everybody’s needs. Tutorials are offered to discuss matters and to simply liaise as well.

Source by Salee Tadeo

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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The world is a collection of communities and the business world is no different. But many times when we hear the term “community” and business mentioned together, it is reference to the area where the business is located more than the individuals and companies that keep the world running. Your “community” at its core, is your specific niche in your industry. Beyond this direct relationship, is that of your suppliers and customers.

Business to business sales offer you an opportunity to develop reciprocal relationships that can have far reaching benefits for your own company as well as your customers. Developing constructive partnerships with other businesses can help you manage your company more efficiently and provide ways to reduce your overhead.

Cultivating these relationships to a point where cooperative advertising can be done is one way to approach selecting businesses for a reciprocal relationship. If your company and one of your suppliers have complementary products and/or services, your advertising efforts will have more impact. What your customer sees is enhanced value and a more credible business presence.

While there are benefits to developing these types of relationships, it is important to make sure that the other business has a code of ethics that is compatible with your own. Discussing customer service in depth with any vendor that you are considering is first on the list: if you cater to your customers and the other business never returns a phone call, there are bound to be problems.

If you want to establish a relationship with a large corporation, again the keyword is benefit. You need to be prepared to show how your service or product will find a specific need that will enhance the profitability of the corporation. It is not sufficient simply to say that your product or service is the best. The larger the company, the more competition you will face which makes research all the more important.

When you want to broaden your scope of community to encompass a relationship with a vendor, look for compatibility of purpose in order to make the most of the relationship. Small business owners that are working with limited marketing budgets can benefit greatly by the word of mouth advertising that is created in the process of collaborations with suppliers. Endorsements of products and services are one of the strongest sales tools available; people are more receptive to recommendations that are made by a person that they have a relationship with than expensive promotions.

Start building your reciprocal business relationships with small projects that are easy to manage without a huge time investment. Make sure that you involve all the individuals that will be affected by the project or be called into participation to make the project a success. As you work through the process of the project work, take time to discuss and evaluate the impact it is creating for both your business and that of your vendor so that it can be refined and developed into a long term, mutually beneficial method of operation.

Source by Andrew Brown

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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All the advice on surviving a layoff says to stay positive, but this can be difficult when your income and part of your identity and social network are ripped away. Coping with job loss requires more than good financial management, it requires good emotional management too.

The good news is that science shows that we usually over-estimate how much pain we will feel. We consistently think negative events like losing a job will depress us more and for a longer time than they actually do. But, Research shows that we quickly get distracted by other events and feel those associated emotions-often within hours.

Science also shows that as long as we have food and shelter, we will ever come back to a happiness set point. Research on lottery winners and people who became disabled through sudden injury shows that we tend to adapt and settle at a basic level of life satisfaction-often within a matter of months. So even if you do nothing, your positive approach to life will return.

Now, here are 7 more quick tips for getting and keeping positive faster:

  1. Make an emotional survival plan as well as a financial one.
  2. Stay connected to other people. Do not back away from family and friends, they are your best support.
  3. Focus on What You Want. Not only does this invoke the law of attraction, which is that you get what you think about most, but it activates different brain chemicals that help you think better.
  4. Stay busy, stay active. Activity keeps you from thinking about all the things that could go wrong. Exercise helps to lower the stress hormones in your body and improves mood.
  5. Have some fun. Make sure that you do something fun every day to keep you in touch with why it is good to be alive no matter what your job is.
  6. Sing songs. Even singing the blues lifts your spirits.
  7. Count your blessings. Gratitude has often been called a vaccine against stress.

There is no question; Surviving a layoff is hard and coping with job loss takes work. Staying positive requires more than telling yourself the glass is half full when you think it is really three quarters empty. But, science shows that your natural happiness mechanisms will help you cheer up over time and there are lots of things you can do to move the process along. Science also shows us the effort to stay positive is worth while because positive people are statistically more likely to solve problems and find creative solutions.

Source by Susan McMillin

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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In order to get a girls attention you need to stand out from the mass. People judge by the looks and you have only seconds to demonstrate that you are a man of style. So, first and foremost you have to look at the way you dress:

Is your dress boring or is it interesting and unique? Of course, it doesn’t make sense to dress like a gigolo, because you have to feel comfortable in your clothes.

It’s quite helpful to ask your friends about your outfit (but please don’t be offended if they are critical, criticism will help you much more than a simple “Yeah, you’re the man!”). It’s even better if you find some girls to ask. Simply tell them you want to change your style a bit – girls love all kinds of fashion questions. You can also ask girls on the street how they like your outfit and where you can buy some cool stuff.

If you’ve read the book called “The Game” by the writer and pickup artist Neil Stauss (aka Style), where he describes the pickup community, you are familiar with the “Peacock Theory”. If not, here is an enlightening extract:

“Peacock theory is the idea that in order to attract the most desirable female of the species, it’s necessary to stand out in a flashy and colorful way. For humans… the equivalent of a flashy peacock tail is a shiny shirt, a garish hat, and jewelry that lights up in the dark… “

That means you can get a girls attention and get her interested in you simply through the way you dress. You think wearing stuff like feather boas, cowboy hats or eye-catching jewelry is silly? Maybe it is. But think about this: How many times have you been approached by someone on your outfit? Not that much? Never? Well, that’s what this stuff is good for – it allows women (mainly shy women) to start a conversation with you. If you have a cool answer and can demonstrate higher value you will most likely get her number. At the same time you demonstrate a high self-confidence wearing this stuff. And women love confident guys.

Source by Steve Wells

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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Global sourcing is a term used to describe a strategy for buying goods and services from countries other than your own so that you can access significant benefits. This is because different parts of the world will be at different stages in their development and so have different cost structures. It can also be because other countries may own raw materials that are not available in your own country or are in short supply.

Here are seven reasons you should consider global sourcing.

1. Access to raw materials. If your company uses raw materials that are not abundant in your own country then you can lower your supply risk by sourcing globally if availability of those materials is greater elsewhere. Economies of scale in extraction can also mean lower prices even with the extra cost of transport and duties factored in.

2. Access to cheaper wages. Manufacturing processes that are labour-intensive can be sourced more cheaply from countries where wages are lower than in your own country. This is particularly true if the technology used has a life cycle. As the technology matures, high wage cost producers tend to move on to new technology as the features and benefits it brings can be used to charge a premium price that offsets the higher labour costs. Low cost countries then tend to adopt the older technology to produce products for the “late majority” of users who buy on price. Even without this technology effect, some services can be operated at lower cost overseas due to the lower wage rates – for example, the number of call centres and software developers that are now located in India and Eastern Europe.

3. Reciprocal trading. Global sourcing works both ways as it involves both a buying organisation and a selling organisation. If your company sells its products to a country that can also provide products that you want to buy then there may be an opportunity for doing a deal that offsets your sales and purchases to give you a better overall economic benefit.

4. Learning how to do business in another country. Knowing the culture and ways of working of other countries can be a significant benefit when you want to sell to them. Buying from those countries can be an effective way of learning about how to trade with that country before you start your sales and marketing effort to win business there.

5. Stimulating competition domestically. Sometimes suppliers in your own country can become complacent if they think that they have a major share of the local market. Finding alternatives overseas can be a good way of attracting new entrants (or just threatening to do so) and shaking up the local market.

6. Increasing supply capacity. If there is a current or potential shortage of a key material or component for your own manufacturing operation then you may have a serious supply risk. Finding alternative sources of supply overseas can increase the available capacity and so reduce the risk.

7. Take advantage of having a global organisation. If your own organisation is a global one then sourcing via your subsidiaries can be an excellent way to access global sources that may be difficult to tap into on your own.

Source by Stephen C Carter

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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It is not un-usual for sinusitis to have an effect on your vision. The most common symptoms are things like blurry eyes, a dull ache in the eye socket and photophobia. Although they are often ignored, these problems can lead to very even more devastating symptoms.

The small openings in the facial bones, in the eyes and the around the nose are known as the sinuses. What you may not know is that the sinuses also act as a protection system, preventing damage to the eye. The sinuses are similar to a car bumper because, if you crash a car, the bumper will always take damage first. Similarly, the sinuses will always take damage before the eyes. The sinuses prevent any big impact to the eye which may lead to more severe problems such as; blindness.

Our sinuses can easily get infected and they often do. In a way, the sinuses are filters for the body and just like any other filter; they can become congested with dust and debris. As this debris accumulates, it causes local inflammation, secretion of excess mucus (in order to clean out debris) and sometimes bacterial overgrowth. In response to this sinus inflammation, the body will close off the nasolacrimal tube that connects the eyes and the interior of the nose. This tube allows thorough drainage of our tears, which our eyes secrete regularly to keep our eyes moist. When this tube is closed off, it can lead to blurry vision or excessive tear ejection. Once sinusitis is gone, your eyes will go back to normal. Only a small percentage (around 15 %!) of sinusitis cases are caused by bacterial infection. Bacterial infections tend to trigger more inflammation and thus more severe symptoms. Your vision can be badly affected by bacterial infections.

Osteomyeltiis can happen if the frontal sinuses become infected. This inflammation affects the bone itself so therefore, it can gradually infect the eye socket. Symptoms such as severe pain above the eyes, blurred vision, dark spots in the visual field and photophobia can be caused by osteomyeltiis. If you feel this may be the case, you MUST see your physician immediately. It is rare that this will cause an actual orbital infection with bacteria.

However, an orbital infection can be triggered by a bacterial infection of the ethmoid sinuses. The ethmoid sinuses are going down the middle of the face and when they become infected, you feel deep pressure down the middle of your face. Orbital infections can have symptoms such as loss of eye movement, drooping eyelids and a sharp pain in the eye itself. As mentioned before, you MUST see your physician quickly if this happens.

An orbital infection can lead to very bad health problems if allowed to progress. If not cured immediately, the infection can travel via the veins in the eyes to the cavernous venous sinuses which are in the brains, and may in fact cause an abscess, meningitis, coma, seizures or even death. This is an extremely rare case, however, it can happen.

As sinus infections can cause a retarded blood movement, they may in fact cause blood clots. The blood accumulates and forms a solid ball that can travel to various venous passageways throughout the body. The eyes are vulnerable to blood clots as they are surrounded by many venous plexuses. If venous drainage is blocked in any way, it can cause a rise in intraorbital pressure. A pupil that is fixed in a dilated position is the first sign.

Even though bacterial infections and the severe symptoms they carry are rare, their serious consequences make them something you need to know about. If any of the aforementioned signs show up, you must visit your doctor as soon as possible.

Source by Adam Maher

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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American and British English are both variants of World English. As such, they are more similar than different, especially with “educated” or “scientific” English. Most divergence can be ascribed to differing national histories and cultural development and the way in which the two national variants have changed correspondingly.

It was said by Sir George Bernard Shaw that “England and America are two countries separated by the same language”.

Written forms of American and British English as found in newspapers and textbooks vary little in their essential features, with only occasional noticeable differences in comparable media.

This kind of formal English, particularly written English, is often called ‘standard English’. It is therefore important for teachers to be aware of the major differences between the two. And while lexical differences are the easiest ones to notice, knowledge of grammatical and phonological differences can be useful not only for teachers to be aware of, but also to be able to deal with in business world. Lack of awareness can lead to embarrassment and confusion.

Another thing which has become apparent is the fact that there are no definitive answers. Not only do different counties/states use different terminology but there appears to be differences between generations as well. All this makes it very difficult to produce information with which everyone agrees.

What has become very evident over the years is just how much language is merging between all the various countries. In the UK we have adopted many, many “Americanisms” into everyday language and, I believe, some British terms are now used in the USA. This is probably due to travel and the wide exchange of TV programmes etc.

Some people asked, “Which is better American or British English?” Generally, it is agreed that no one version is “correct” however, there are certainly preferences in use. It depends upon which English you will be most exposed to. If you are moving to the US then learn American English, if you’re going to work for a British company then learn British English. And don’t forget there are many different kinds of English and the rising star of International English.

The most important rule of thumb is to try to be consistent in your usage. If you decide that you want to use American English spellings then be consistent in your spelling (i.e. The color of the orange is also its flavour – color is American spelling and flavour is British), this is of course not always easy – or possible. That both British English and American English are accepted on the examinations as long as you consistently use either one or the other. In other words, don’t mix!

Some of the key differences between these two languages; however, most of the words are exactly the same. Firstly, one can easily notice that the accents are much different. Some words are slightly different. For example, in American English the undergarments of a person are called “underwear.” However, in British English, it is simply called “pants.” Thus, some words can be easily confused in the opposite cultures.

There are also some reasonably consistent spelling differences. There are some common rules for American English. In the following examples listed below, the first is UK English and the second is American English.

• Where UK, Australian and NZ English often use the letter group of our, in American English the u is omitted.

favourite / favorite

neighbour / neighbor

colour / color

• UK English uses an s where American English often substitutes a z.

capitalisation / capitalization

recognise / recognize

• In word building, UK English doubles the final consonant where it is preceded by a vowel, whereas American English does not. For example:

traveller / traveler

labelled / labeled

• Some words which are spelt with a ‘c’ in the noun form but an ‘s’ in the verb form of some words are not spelt with the ‘c’ in American English – both noun and verb forms retain the ‘s’.



• Some words ending in ‘re’ in U.K. and Australian English are spelt with ‘er’ in American English.


kilometre/ kilometer

• U.K. English retains the old style of retaining ‘oe’ and ‘ae’ in the middle of some words, whilst American English uses just an ‘e’.



• Some words in U.K. English retain the ‘gue’ at the end, as opposed to just the ‘g’ in American English.



The best way to make sure that you are being consistent in your spelling is to use the spell check on your word processor (if you are using the computer of course) and choose which variety of English you would like. As you can see, there are really very few differences between standard British English and standard American English. However, the largest difference is probably that of the choice of vocabulary and pronunciation.

Source by Anya Van Musico

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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What is Heat Balance Diagram?

Heat Balance Diagram or HBD for Thermal Power Station is the basically schematic representation of the whole steam cycle from Boiler to High Pressure (HP) Turbines Intermediate Pressure (IP) Turbines and Low Pressure (LP) Turbines to condenser to pumps to re-heaters and again to boiler.

This diagram also contains some information of steam properties like Pressure Temperature, enthalpy and mass of the steam at every junction of the line.

What information the HBD has?

As mentioned above, Heat Balance Diagram or HBD has the heat equation at points before and after every component. Considering the first point after the boiler, knowing the steam properties, pressure and temperatures, other properties like enthalpy of the steam can also be determined. Knowing the efficiencies and considerations like pressure drop across the control valves, these properties along the cycle can be determined, thus the heat rate of the system. With help of heat rate, the mass of steam required can be determined.

Why it is important?

Heat Balance Diagram is generally one of the first produced diagrams and part of Process Control Diagrams(PCDs), by an engineering wing or consultancy while working on the specifications of the project (power plant). HBD helps to engineer the plant by way of providing the steam properties at different point across the steam cycle, thus providing vital information, helpful to design the whole system and supporting systems. In a way this diagram is critical to finalize the specifications of different components before initiating the bidding procedures by the consultants, especially working on EPC assignments.

HBD, in fact also helps in estimating the cost of the plant as well as it provides the heat rate, operational cost can also be estimated. Knowing the both costs, it is easier to decide on refining the specifications of components (comparing initial investments as well as the operational costs), before bidding process, as mentioned above.

Usually there has been no ways for the project owner to comment on the consultants decision about the specifications. Mostly it has to be dependent on individual discretion and experience and expertise. However, recently some software solutions have come to provide support to engineers, which can simulate the Heat Balance Diagram for engineers to understand the process in a better way and not only to comment over the design provided by consultants, but also provide an opportunity to increase the operating efficiencies, resulting into significant saving in operational costs. Some of such commercial software which are based on Rankine cycle are “Simple Heat Balance”, Thermoflow, FCycle (All from different vendors) are now available which are quite accurate and affordable.

Source by Sonal Kulshreshtha

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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Citibank’s strategic intent is to convert its traditional money management business into an e-business framework. How does Citibank transform its traditional assets into digital assets? What issues, if any, do you envision that Citibank must overcome in order for the implementation to be successful?

According to Porter two main ways for a company to compete are on cost advantage or on differentiation. Citibank chose not to compete on price, but instead chose to compete on differentiation.

Since many other companies have similar products and services, Citibank bases its differentiation on customer service. Traditionally, this involved “offering telephone hotlines, relationship managers who understood clients’ needs, product consultants who provided service expertise and most important, continuous investment in technology to support both the front-end and the back-end electronic banking systems”. In order for “successful” transformation of traditional assets into digital assets the company must maintain or enhance its differentiation. Since the company’s differentiation is based on customer service, that means that in the transformation from traditional to digital assets the company must continue to be highly responsive to the customers’ current and future needs, and must do so to a higher level than the competition.

One main way that Citibank achieved transition from traditional to digital was via alliances with such technological companies as Oracle, Commerce One Inc, SAP AG, Wisdom Technologies and Bolero.net. Earlier the company invested millions of dollars on its own in multiple areas of e-business, and failed. Technology is not Citibank’s area of expertise, and it found dealing with constantly changing technology to be an expensive struggle, which it ultimately lost. However, by 2000 Citibank had changed its strategy to one of garnering alliances and using its partners’ strengths to create the technological infrastructure that the company needed to access markets and meet its customers changing demands. Working through alliances reduced Citibank’s risks and costs, increased its effectiveness, and allowed it to remain flexible in meeting changing technological and customer demands.

Customer demands varies, both in the short term and long term. According to McCauley and Kahn, one of the most important obstacles for Citibank to overcome in migrating customers from traditional to digital service was meeting their deep seated concerns about security. While to some degree this hindered Citibank’s efforts in rolling out Web-based applications, Citi did actively implement “multi-layered security architecture… public and private access keys, single-use passwords and multiple authorization controls” in order to meet customer needs (2002, p. 9). In addition, with digital processing it looked to transform repeatable processes that could be “commoditized” into an efficient digital factory. Commoditizing repeatable processes improves efficiency, but also allows resources for additional regional focus — localization. So too, Citibank’s strong brand name is a resource that translates into increased trust as a “trusted provider” when competing with Deutche Bank and other competitors. In fact, most Fortune 500 companies assign value to Citibank’s specific offerings, and prefer it to other international payment providers. Citibank, then, offers multiple areas of value to customers.

The key question, however, is whether this value translates into a competitive advantage which translates into additional profits. Though Citibank met their customers’ needs in the area of information technology, how unique is what it offered? Cutting edge technological capabilities can soon become “hygiene factors”, which are considered to be required, rather than a competitive advantage. These then, do not qualify for differentiation or competitive advantage. While at one point Citibank may have offered cutting edge technological capabilities, the competitive advantages these afford can quickly be eroded. Customer service and transactional efficiency are important. However we need to ask what other areas of business require attention in order for Citibank’s ultimate success. If these are not met, the corporation will not meet its growth goals.

Source by Ashley C Waters

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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During the Great Depression, women made up 25% of the work force, but their jobs were more unstable, temporary or seasonal then men, and the unemployment rate was much greater. There was also a decided bias and cultural view that “women didn’t work” and in fact many who were employed full time often called themselves “homemakers.” Neither men in the workforce, the unions, nor any branch of government were ready to accept the reality of working women, and this bias caused females intense hardship during the Great Depression.

The 1930’s was particularly hard on single, divorced or widowed women, but it was harder still on women who weren’t White. Women of color had to overcome both sexual and racial stereotyping. Black women in the North suffered an astounding 42.9% unemployment, while 23.2%. of White women were without work according to the 1937 census. In the South, both Black and White women were equally unemployed at 26%. In contrast, the unemployment rate for Black and White men in the North (38.9%/18.1%) and South (18%/16% respectively) were also lower than female counterparts.

The financial situation in Harlem was bleak even before the Great Depression. But afterward, the emerging Black working class in the North was decimated by wholesale layoffs of Black industrial workers. To be Black and a woman alone, made keeping a job or finding another one nearly impossible. The racial work hierarchy replaced Black women in waitressing or domestic work, with White women, now desperate for work, and willing to take steep wage cuts.

Survival Entrepreneurs

At the start of the Depression, while one study found that homeless women were most likely factory and service workers, domestics, garment workers, waitresses and beauticians; another suggested that the beauty industry was a major source of income for Black women. These women, later known as “survivalist entrepreneurs,” became self-employed in response to a desperate need to find an independent means of livelihood.”

Replaced by White women in more traditional domestic work as cooks, maids, nurses, and laundresses, even skilled and educated Black women were so hopeless, ”that they actually offered their services at the so-called ‘slave markets’-street corners where Negro women congregated to await White housewives who came daily to take their pick and bid wages down” (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962:246). Moreover, the home domestic service was very difficult, if not impossible, to coordinate with family responsibilities, as the domestic servant was usually on call ”around the clock” and was subject to the ”arbitrary power of individual employers.”

Inn Keepers and Hairdressers

Two occupations were sought out by Black women, in order to address both the need for income (or barter items) and their domestic responsibilities in northern cities during the Great Depression: (1) boarding house and lodging house keeping; and (2) hairdressing and beauty culture.

During the “Great Migration” of 1915-1930, thousands of Blacks from the South, mostly young, single men, streamed into Northern cities, looking for places to stay temporarily while they searched for housing and jobs. Housing these migrants created opportunities for Black working-class women,-now unemployed-to pay their rent.

According to one estimate, ”at least one-third” of Black families in the urban North had lodgers or boarders during the Great Migration (Thomas, 1992:93, citing Henri, 1976). The need was so great, multiple boarders were housed, leading one survey of northern Black families to report that ”seventy-five percent of the Negro homes have so many lodgers that they are really hotels.”

Women were usually at the center of these webs of family and community networks within the Black community:

“They ”undertook the greatest part of the burden” of helping the newcomers find interim housing. Women played ”connective and leadership roles” in northern Black communities, not only because it was considered traditional “woman’s work,” but also because taking in boarders and lodgers helped Black women combine housework with an informal, income-producing activity (Grossman, 1989:133). In addition, boarding and lodging house keeping was often combined with other types of self-employment. Some of the Black women who kept boarders and lodgers also earned money by making artificial flowers and lamp shades at home.” (Boyd, 2000)

In addition from 1890 to 1940, ”barbers and hairdressers” were the largest segments of the Black business population, together comprising about one third of this population in 1940 (Boyd, 2000 citing Oak, 1949:48).

“Blacks tended to gravitate into these occupations because “White barbers, hairdressers, and beauticians were unwilling or unable to style the hair of Blacks or to provide the hair preparations and cosmetics used by them. Thus, Black barbers, hairdressers, and beauticians had a ”protected consumer market” based on Whites’ desires for social distance from Blacks and on the special demands of Black consumers. Accordingly, these Black entrepreneurs were sheltered from outside competitors and could monopolize the trades of beauty culture and hairdressing within their own communities.

Black women who were seeking jobs believed that one’s appearance was a crucial factor in finding employment. Black self-help organizations in northern cities, such as the Urban League and the National Council of Negro Women, stressed the importance of good grooming to the newly arrived Black women from the South, advising them to have neat hair and clean nails when searching for work. Above all, the women were told avoid wearing ”head rags” and ”dust caps” in public (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962:247, 301; Grossman, 1989:150-151).

These warnings were particularly relevant to those who were looking for secretarial or white-collar jobs, for Black women needed straight hair and light skin to have any chance of obtaining such positions. Despite the hard times, beauty parlors and barber shops were the most numerous and viable Black-owned enterprises in Black communities (e.g., Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962:450-451).

Black women entrepreneurs in the urban North also opened stores and restaurants, with modest savings ”as a means of securing a living” (Boyd, 2000 citing Frazier, 1949:405). Called ”depression businesses,” these marginal enterprises were often classified as proprietorships, even though they tended to operate out of ”houses, basements, and old buildings” (Boyd, 2000 citing Drake and Cayton, 1945/1962:454).

“Food stores and eating and drinking places were the most common of these businesses, because, if they failed, their owners could still live off their stocks.”

“Protestant Whites Only”

These businesses were a necessity for Black women, as the preference for hiring Whites climbed steeply during the Depression. In the Philadelphia Public Employment Office in 1932 & 1933, 68% of job orders for women specified “Whites Only.” In New York City, Black women were forced to go to separate unemployment offices in Harlem to seek work. Black churches and church-related institutions, a traditional source of help to the Black community, were overwhelmed by the demand, during the 1930’s. Municipal shelters, required to “accept everyone,” still reported that Catholics and African American women were “particularly hard to place.”

No one knows the numbers of Black women left homeless in the early thirty’s, but it was no doubt substantial, and invisible to the mostly white investigators. Instead, the media chose to focus on, and publicize the plight of White, homeless, middle-class “white collar” workers, as, by 1931 and 1932, unemployment spread to this middle-class. White-collar and college-educated women, usually accustomed “to regular employment and stable domicile,” became the “New Poor.” We don’t know the homeless rates for these women, beyond an educated guess, but of all the homeless in urban centers, 10% were suggested to be women. We do know, however, that the demand for “female beds” in shelters climbed from a bit over 3,000 in 1920 to 56,808 by 1932 in one city and in another, from 1929 -1930, demand rose 270%.

“Having an Address is a Luxury Now…”

Even these beds, however, were the last stop on the path towards homelessness and were designed for “habitually destitute” women, and avoided at all cost by those who were homeless for the first time. Some number ended up in shelters, but even more were not registered with any agency. Resources were few. Emergency home relief was restricted to families with dependent children until 1934. “Having an address is a luxury just now” an unemployed college woman told a social worker in 1932.

These newly destitute urban women were the shocked and dazed who drifted from one unemployment office to the next, resting in Grand Central or Pennsylvania station, and who rode the subway all night (the “five cent room”), or slept in the park, and who ate in penny kitchens. Slow to seek assistance, and fearful and ashamed to ask for charity, these women were often on the verge of starvation before they sought help. They were, according to one report, often the “saddest and most difficult to help.” These women “starved slowly in furnished rooms. They sold their furniture, their clothes, and then their bodies.”

The Emancipated Woman and Gender Myths

If cultural myths were that women “didn’t work,” then those that did were invisible. Their political voice was mute. Gender role demanded that women remain “someone’s poor relation,” who returned back to the rural homestead during times of trouble, to help out around the home, and were given shelter. These idyllic nurturing, pre-industrial mythical family homes were large enough to accommodate everyone. The new reality was much bleaker. Urban apartments, no bigger than two or three rooms, required “maiden aunts” or “single cousins” to “shift for themselves.” What remained of the family was often a strained, overburdened, over-crowded household that often contained severe domestic troubles of its own.

In addition, few, other than African Americans, were with the rural roots to return to. And this assumed that a woman once emancipated and tasting past success would remain “malleable.” The female role was an out-of-date myth, but was nonetheless a potent one. The “new woman” of the roaring twenties was now left without a social face during the Great Depression. Without a home–the quintessential element of womanhood–she was, paradoxically, ignored and invisible.

“…Neighborliness has been Stretched Beyond Human Endurance.”

In reality, more than half of these employed women had never married, while others were divorced, deserted, separated or claimed to be widowed. We don’t know how many were lesbian women. Some had dependent parents and siblings who relied on them for support. Fewer had children who were living with extended family. Women’s wages were historically low for most female professions, and allowed little capacity for substantial “emergency” savings, but most of these women were financially independent. In Milwaukee, for example, 60% of those seeking help had been self-supporting in 1929. In New York, this figure was 85%. Their available work was often the most volatile and at risk. Some had been unemployed for months, while others for a year or more. With savings and insurance gone, they had tapped out their informal social networks. One social worker, in late 1931, testified to a Senate committee that “neighborliness has been stretched not only beyond its capacity but beyond human endurance.”

Older women were often discriminated against because of their age, and their long history of living outside of traditional family systems. When work was available, it often specified, as did one job in Philadelphia, a demand for “white stenographers and clerks, under (age) 25.”

The Invisible Woman

The Great Depression’s effect on women, then, as it is now, was invisible to the eye. The tangible evidence of breadlines, Hoovervilles, and men selling apples on street corners, did not contain images of urban women. Unemployment, hunger and homelessness was considered a “man’s problem” and the distress and despair was measured in that way. In photographic images, and news reports, destitute urban women were overlooked or not apparent. It was considered unseemly to be a homeless woman, and they were often hidden from public view, ushered in through back door entrances, and fed in private.

Partly, the problem lay in expectations. While homelessness in men had swelled periodically during periods of economic crisis, since the depression of the 1890’s onward, large numbers of homeless women “on their own” were a new phenomenon. Public officials were unprepared: Without children, they were, early on, excluded from emergency shelters. One building with a capacity of 155 beds and six cribs, lodged over 56,000 “beds” during the third year of the depression. Still, these figures do not take account the number of women turned away, because they weren’t White or Protestant.

As the Great Depression wore on, wanting only a way to make money, these women were excluded from “New Deal” work programs set up to help the unemployed. Men were seen as “breadwinners,” holding greater claim to economic resources. While outreach and charitable agencies finally did emerge, they were often inadequate to meet the demand.

Whereas black women had particular hard times participating in the mainstream economy during the Great Depression, they did have some opportunity to find alternative employment within their own communities, because of unique migration patterns that had occurred during that period. White women, in contrast, had a keyhole opportunity, if they were young and of considerable skills, although their skin color alone offered them greater access to whatever traditional employment was still available.

The rejection of traditional female roles, and the desire for emancipation, however, put these women at profound risk once the economy collapsed. In any case, single women, with both black and white skin, fared worse and were invisible sufferers.

As we enter the Second Great Depression, who will be the new “invisible homeless” and will women, as a group, fare better this time?


Abelson, E. (2003, Spring2003). Women Who Have No Men to Work for Them: Gender and Homelessness in the Great Depression, 1930-1934. Feminist Studies, 29(1), 104. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Boyd, R. (2000, December). Race, Labor Market Disadvantage, and Survivalist Entrepreneurship: Black Women in the Urban North During the Great Depression. Sociological Forum, 15(4), 647-670. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.

Source by Kathy A. McMahon

May 17, 2017 0 comment
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