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Descriptive Statistics:

Descriptive statistics involves the interpretation of data in a simplified form; it involves summarizing the basic futures of data. Descriptive statistics involves calculation of the population or sample mean, median, mode and dispersion; dispersion measures include the variance and standard variations. It also involves the description of distribution of data through establishing the frequency of classes or scale established.

We take the US population release in 2000 retrieved from http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t1/index.html, the data contains several races to describe the contents of the data, and the following is a summary of the data:


over 18 years

below 18 years



Total population

209 128 094

72 293 812

281 421 906


161 862 337

49 598 289

211 460 626


Black or African American

23 772 494

10 885 696

34 658 190


American Indian and Alaska Native

1 635 644

840 312

2 475 956



7 777 999

2 464 999

10 242 998


Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

271 656

127 179

398 835


Some other race

9 838 622

5 520 451

15 359 073


Two or more races

3 969 342

2 856 886

6 826 228


The distribution of the data will be summarized in a graph as follows:

The above chart summarises the US 2000 population with reference to race, it is evident that whites are the majority and native hawaian have the lowest number of people. We can establish the mean, medsian and the mdoe for the selected data and from the calculations the mean is 40 203 129 while the standard deviation is 76372390.43. This means that the average value for the data is 40,203,129, the standard deviation value means that the data deviates 76372390 from the mean, this is a large value of standard deviation meaning that the data deviates more; this means that we have very low and very high values in the data. The mode is the value that has the highest frequency, in our case we don’t have the mode in our data, the median value for our data is 10 242 998 and this is the population of Asian

Descriptive statistics and its relationship to my profession:

Descriptive statistics is important in that it provides an overview of the data in question, example from the above data we can easily establish the probability of choosing an Asian randomly from the population, it also helps to determine the number of expected consumers, example each race will have their own unique demand for products and as a person who wants to start a business in the united states then there is need to know the population size and population characteristics in terms of demand.

In business therefore descriptive statistics helps in making conclusions about various issues and therefore helps in making decision. Description statistics is the first step in analyzing data before making inferences of data, therefore it is important in analyzing any data collected that will help in describing the characteristics of data collected.


Some of the types of probability I have encountered in my profession include joint probability and conditional probability, conditional probability is the probability of an event X happening if event Y happens, it is important in many fields of business in that it helps to make decisions under uncertainties. The other is joint probability and this is the probability where event Y happens and event X happen. Both probabilities are useful in decision making and even forecasting, for example one may observe historical data of his or favorite team wins and losses during cold and warm climates, this will help to give an estimate in future on the probability that the climate is cold and the team wins or the probability that the climate is warm and the team wins.

Use of probability:

Business decision may be based on probability, many games that exist also depend on probability example the card game, when the decision is faced with decision on investment the business may want to know the probability of achieving certain levels of profits and also the probability of being awarded these contracts, in this case therefore the firm will collect all relevant data and analyze the best option that will yield high profits and yet yield a high probability of occurrence.

Probability is also used in personal decision making, example during cold weather an individual will make the decision of wearing warm cloths because there is a high probability that it will rain, however during warm seasons decisions will wear light cloths because there is a high possibility that there will be no rain.

Misleading probabilities:

The use of probabilities in decision making requires that all the factors that may affect chances are taken into consideration, further if probabilities are based on historical occurrences then there is a risk of making wrong decision because what happened in the past may not happen in future.

Probability ranges from 0 to 1 and a probability level 0 means that we a certain that the event will not occur, the value 1 means that we are certain that the event will occur, in most cases however the probability level may be less than one and greater than 0 meaning that we are not certain that the anticipated event may not occur, therefore decisions made are based on chance and we are not certain that they will occur.

Probability only gives a measure of the level that an event will occur and the event will not occur, decisions based on the probability level which is not equal to one then we are not certain that they will occur and therefore there is a risk of failure which will depend on the probability level.

Finally probability may lead to wrong decision where we may base our values on unreliable and outdated data, there is need to use reliable and up to date data that will help reduce errors in the calculation of these probabilities.


Bluman A. (2000) Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach, McGraw Hill press, New York

US Census (2008) 2000 Census data, retrieved on 17th July, available at http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t1/index.html

Source by John Warren

October 8, 2016 0 comment
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Recently, I received a frantic midnight

call from one of my readers in Atlanta.

A member of his was facing a foreclosure

on their home in just a matter of days.

He needed my advice… desperately.

I sat down and wrote 14 prayer points

and emailed that to him, along with

specific instructions on when and how

to pray them

(just to be sure we’re all on the same page,

a prayer point is a statement created from

Scripture, designed to address a specific

problem head on. I’ll give you some samples

quite soon).

He quickly passed it on to his friend – Betty.

As sometimes happens, Betty was too tired

to pray that day. But she remembered Claire,

a childhood friend of hers in Texas was

being kicked out of her home for similar

reasons. So what she did was call her

and dictate the prayers to her over the phone.

Here’s what happened…

Claire prayed those prayers that night

(desperately, I might add) before going

to bed as instructed. The following morning

she was awakened by the shrill sound of

the phone ringing.

“Claire?” the voice on the other end asked.

“Yes, who is on the line?” she answered,

wondering who could be calling so early…

at 5:30 a.m.

It was her account officer at the mortgage

company, calling to tell her she had a

brainwave during the night that could help

her avoid foreclosure! She would have to discuss

with her manager that morning and if all went

well, all she would have to do was come in

and sign a few papers later in the day.

By 1:00 pm the second call came. Claire

hurried over for the paperwork.

Mission accomplished!

Well, when Betty heard Claire’s story,

she quickly started to pray the exact, same prayers.

Before the week was out, one of her “distant”

relatives (whom she hadn’t seen in ages)

suddenly dropped by out of the blue.

He ended up buying the property and (hear this)

re-selling it to her at zero cost!


Actually there’s a little-known biblical

principle behind all this. You see, the prayer

points I gave were carefully designed to pull down

invisible barriers of entry that exists in

every community, in every city, in

every country on this planet.

What Is An Entry Barrier?

Look at this as an invisible structure

(or entity) whose job is to keep people out

of enjoying certain benefits in certain places.

Think of the many (well-qualified) people

you know who somehow can’t seem to settle

down to a good job; or some of those who

seem to lose them mysteriously;

Or those who cannot hang on to good things

for too long – before you know it,

relationships turn sour, friends become enemies,

depression and drugs set in

(there’s a really huge market for

anti-depressants in my city…).

If you notice these things happening repeatedly,

you need to carry out what is referred to as,

“Spiritual Environmental Sanitation.”

Here’s how.

Pick a date when you could have a very light

dinner (or none at all).

Just before going to bed, do these 8 things:

1. Start by singing praises to God.

2. Open your Bible to Psalm 91 and read the

whole chapter out loud (this is one of the most

powerful ‘covering’ Scriptures in the Bible).

3. Symbolically sprinkle the blood of Jesus

upon your land (your land is the spiritual

space God has allocated to you).

4. Ask the blood of Jesus to begin to speak

over your land (Heb. 12:24 says the blood speaks, you know).

5. Address the gates and high places of your

land using Ps 24:7

6. Ask the LORD to loose His angels over your land.

7. Use the key of David to open the prison doors

of your land (this is a spiritual key that

Jesus gives to His beloved followers for this

kind of operation Rev. 3:7).

8. Give thanks to God and close with praises.

In a nutshell, that’s the pattern I followed when

I created those prayer points.

Why am I telling you this?

To show you that for every problem you may face,

there are targeted prayers you can pray to

deal with them.

Unfortunately, most folks are

unaware of these and the consequences are that a

lot of people are suffering needlessly.

What I’m hoping to do here is offer you

something you can do right now to get immediate

results for your efforts – if you’re a Christian.

(I’m not interested in telling you pie-in-the-sky

stories that don’t work).

If you’re not (a Christian), you can become one –

the door of salvation is still open and is still FREE

(in this regard, please feel free to shoot me a personal

email at: [email protected])

If you’ve not yet done so, I suggest you quickly

grab a free web copy of my book,

“Passion Prayer of Jesus the Christ:

The 7 Secrets Revealed”

… to gain more insight into HOW this type of

prayer should be handled.

It is available as a free download when you



Be blessed!

Source by Elisha Goodman

October 6, 2016 0 comment
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The science of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry has been reunited the cultures of science and art to re-establish the ancient Platonic Science for Ethical Ends. This means that the concept of Aristotle’s ethical science to guide ennobling government can now re-emerge throughout the world. The objective of that ancient science remains exactly the same as it once was. It is science, designed to avoid human extinction. The existence of two separate chemistries, one about the physical material reality and the other about the functioning of Dr Candace Pert’s Molecule of Emotion, forms the structure of this human survival science. Both chemistries entangle with each other to describe universal reality. This provides the basis of the ancient Greek political concept of allowing the people to choose between what Buckminster Fuller’s called Utopia or Oblivion.

The global slide toward oblivion today is much as it once was in ancient Athens, when the Tyrants plunged the city into impossible debt, threatening such chaotic violence that Solon was appointed to sort out the economic differences in a peaceful manner. He abolished personal debt and interest on loans, as well as making property ownership more accessible to the people. Within ten years Athens became extremely prosperous. His wisdom, on behalf of the people, made contributions toward more democratic concepts in the face of complex greed manipulations by unethical power brokers.

After ten years of growing prosperity the Tyrants again seized control and Athenian power began its path to decline by foreign aggression. Today the same situation has returned to Greece and other nations caught up in the current global economic nightmare, now threatening to destroy the civilisation of the United States of America. It can be considered that stakeholders in global economic rationalism might be able to conceive, to their benefit, a modification of their present economic legal responsiblies, by upgrading them to meet the new medical chemistry guidelines.

During the 20th Century it was common knowledge that our entropic chemistry, governed by the second law of thermodynamics, had correctly stated that it is impossible to construct a perpetual motion machine. However, such concepts can now be reasoned about logically with an understanding about the functioning of the integration of both the new and the old chemistries. Past economic rationalism, however, invented concepts that sought perpetual economic growth for the benefit of human civilisation. TIME Magazine’s Century of Science’s greatest scientist for 1907 was Maria Montessori, who realised this was in error, referring to the entropic second law as the Greed Energy Law that would only bring about economic collapses and continual warfare.

Working with the Jesuit Priest, Tielhard de Chardin, Montessori postulated the existence of an electromagnetic key to open the ‘Golden Gates’ to the future. This electromagnetic key was Immanuel Kant’s God-like Ethic for perpetual peace on earth, the subject of Hans Christian Oersted’s Doctorate in 1799 titled,The Architectonicks of Natural Metaphysics. Oersted envisaged a new electromagnetic biological technology, which, in modern terms, is the quantum biology of the new Platonic Fullerene Chemistry. This makes Faraday’s concept of the electric motor a child’s toy by comparison. We now know from nanopolymer research, that such an electromagnetic life-science ethic is associated with the functioning of the centriole within the human cell, giving glimpses of a truly supra technology beyond our previous ability to imagine.

It is not necessary to use such technical terminology to demonstrate to the people that modern science and economics has been constructed upon false assumptions that dismissed human feelings as part of its composition. Leonardo da Vinci was not the man of the Renaissance the public has been led to believe. His optics key in his Theory of Knowledge, claiming that the eye was the source of all cognition, was erroneously supported by Rene Descartes and Sir Francis Bacon, pivotal figures of the mechanical era. At the moment of conception the eye does not even exist to guide any evolutionary development at all. Leonardo was unable to envision the liquid crystal optics of the eye of the cell. When the fertilising sperm, driven by a male nano-scale electromagnetic motor, penetrates the liquid crystal optical construction membrane of the female ovum, Dr Carl Callerman’s universal purpose is brought into living focus as a balanced Yin-Yang electromagnetic centriole. The optics of the cellular membrane, not the optics of the human eye, holds the key to all knowledge. The centriole is the carrier of universal life-science purpose.

Scientists such as Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff are researching about what can be considered to be crucial properties of the centriole that are associated with the cerebral functioning of micro-tubule polymers. Without a doubt, nano-polymer research is now becoming crucial research for humanity’s future. However, Buckminster Fuller’s warning about making the choice between Utopia or Oblivion is of paramount importance to the people of the world. Fears about entropic nano-bot technology appear to be well founded. Plato warned about the destructive evil of unformed matter within the physical atom that could emerge from the actions of engineers who knew nothing about spiritual optical engineering principles belonging to the science for ethical ends. Today, the nuclear radiation threat spreading into Japan pales into insignificance to the threat posed by current entropic nanotechnology.

The British Astronomer Royal, Sir Martin Rees, has predicted that uncontrolled nanotechnology research is one of the inevitable human extinction outcomes that is likely to occur this century. In order to comprehend the solution to that dire threat of oblivion, we need to understand the basic relationship between the old familiar chemistry and the new one that is now emerging alongside it. We must free ourselves completely from being governed by an entropic dictatorship that denies that the science of life is linked to the infinite ethical fractal logic of the new chemistry. It is no longer acceptable to considerit heresy that Sir Isaac Newton’s conviction, written in his Heresy Papers, that the world-view of a material universe must be completed with a more natural, profound philosophy, a philosophy based upon the same physics principles that upheld the original Platonic Science for Ethical Ends. Newton’s infinite world-view can only be upheld by the same fractal logic that was basic to this lost science, and which is also fundamental to Platonic Fullerene Chemistry.

Buckminster Fuller’s warning about a science governed by entropic logic was echoed by others such as the Molecular Biologist, Sir C P Snow, the Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Georgy, and the Max Plank Astrophysicist, Peter Kafka. All of these people warned that the mind-set of Homo Entropicus was following a path to total chaos. This is indeed an entrenched scientific culture, Einstein wrote that the second law of thermodynamics was the Premier Law of All of Science. Einstein’s colleague, Sir Arthur Eddington called it the Supreme Metaphysical Law of the Entire Universe. Charles Darwin used it as the basis of his Theory of Evolution, actually citing Thomas Malthus’ economic theories, which, in the 18th Century, had become synonymous with the second law of thermodynamics. For Western Moral Jurisprudence Law to attempt to continue to enforce an entropic global economic rationalism upon the global population can be considered to be a recipe for World War III.

In Volume 12 of the collected papers of Bertrand Russell, written in 1902, mention is made of Platonic metaphysics, but Russell lost belief in those ideas, although that particular work is considered to warrant further serious study. His, A Free Man’s Worship, published in 1903, was a dedication to Albert Einstein’s concept, that all life must be destroyed by the dictates of the second law of thermodynamics, the universal entropy law, and this became Russell’s most popular reprinted essay. He wrote that “…the whole temple of man’s achievement must be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins…” and “… only on the firm foundation of unyielding despair, can the soul’s habitation henceforth be safely built.” In the light of the new Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, this horrific world-view that has been governing Western science for so many centuries, is no longer acceptable.

We know that various ancient Eastern philosophies were able to associate fractal geometrical logic with human emotional feeling. For example, the ancient Indra Diamond Net Necklace fractal demonstrates emotional concepts that are relevant to Dr Candace Pert’s Molecule of Emotion discovered in1972. It is ignorant and offensive to consider such ancient philosophical ideas to have been ancient acts of pagan, barbaric behaviour, as was believed by St Augustine during the 5th Century, following the murder of the mathematician, Hypatia, in 415, who was the custodian of the Great Library of Alexandria.

During the 5th Century, over a thousand years of fractal logic life-science research were burned and dismissed from the mind-set of Western culture, influencing the Western world for another fifteen hundred years. The great genius, Albert Einstein, may have caused Bertrand Russell’s inspiration that we must accept a living hell on earth, but Einstein’s real greatness was that his protege, David Bohm, and Bohm’s colleague, Karl Pribram, managed to break the entropic barrier to give the world a glimpse of the workings of an infinite fractal holographic universe. Einstein can be considered to have been instrumental in making that possible.

The front cover of New Scientist, dated the 26th of June 2010, heralded the Rise of the Quantum Machines. The relevant feature article carried the heading that “The new breed of quantum machines promise to patch a gaping hole into every experiment ever made”. The quantum researcher at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Nobel Laureate, Anthony Leggett, considered that although quantum theory is our most successful physics theory to date, it may not continue to describe the physical world perfectly, because there are too many issues that approximate reality.

The quantum theory mentioned in the article emphasises the physical world. The new Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, however, is about quantum biology and its interweaving with the world of quantum mechanics. This permits new models of reality to come into existence that challenge the validity of our understanding of the second law of thermodynamics. One of physics’ most famous thought experiments is that of Shrodinger’s cat, which can be dead and alive at the same time, an argument designed to demonstrate that quantum theory can be considered to flawed. Many scientists argue otherwise, referring to the property of a single Fullerene carbon-70 molecule being able to go through two separate slits at the same time within Young’s double slit experiment. Ideas about parallel universes appear to emerge from such thinking, which although interesting, do not seem to be addressing the serious consequences of maintaining an entropic mind-set.

Due to the serious issue of Fuller’s choice between Utopia or Oblivion underlying this article, it has been deemed warranted to make an attempt to present some reasoned argument that might draw public attention to its perceived peril at the hands of the second law. The properties of the Fullerene Carbon-70 is of great interest to the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, which is closely associated with the development of the New Measurement of Humanity Project at the University of Florence. The Centre has adopted the Mark Robinson model of space-time, which provides a suggested solution to Young’s famous double slit experimental paradox and it is therefore considered prudent to mention this as being representative of the new models of space-time that are now emerging in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics

Robinson’s model was among such models noted in the text of a quantum biological paper by Huping Hu and Maoxin Wu, titled On Dark Chemistry- What’s dark Matter and How Mind Influences Brain Through Proactive Spin. The paper was about how primordial sub atomic spin influences consciousness in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics and was published in NeuroQuantology, Volume 5, issue2, June 2007.

In accord with Plato’s dictum that all is geometry, Robinson postulated that a fundamental concept of space-time describes a simple premise. Information within energy creates a unique geometrical structure of time, space and matter, reminiscent of Sir Isaac Newton’s ‘very subtle spirit’ mentioned in his Fundamental Principles of Natural Philosophy. In Robinson’s model, a constant acceleration of light upgrades a holographic pattern of space-time reality, compatible to Newton’s association of light carrying information related to gravity. Space-time comprises of three phase states, past, present and future as a singular geometric event. Each phase’s location is uniquely defined within the time line. This suggests a coherent geometry through space-time, replacing the concept of randomness and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Nonlocality, the ability of information exchange beyond space-time, is essential to Robinson’s model. Each phase of a moment of time communicates within its being, to constantly upgrade its local environmental space-time structure of the universe. Within Young’s double slit experiment, this process might play a role to explain paradoxical events. We know from the EPR paradox that information can be in two places at once and we might now associate this with the workings of some intelligent purpose rather that submit to Bertrand Russell’s world-view of uncertainty and chaos. Order from chaos can be considered associated with sub-atomic movement evolving through space-time, compatible with both the physics principles upholding the Platonic Science for Ethical Ends and Sir Isaac Newton’s complete description of the universe.

Professor Paolo Manzelli and Professor Massimo Pregnolato were awarded the Georgio Napolitano Medal in 2010 on behalf of the Republic of Italy, for their quantum biological development of Platonic Fullerene Chemistry, as part of their New Measurement of Humanity Project, the New Renaissance. Their Age of Quantum Entanglement in science and art allows for an understanding of how the process of chaos simultaneously enacts an auto catalytic event that produces a new ethical, or healthy, order in nature, described as the “Principle of Fertile Evolution”.

Source by Robert Pope

October 6, 2016 0 comment
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