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Every teacher has a responsibility to provide a healthy learning environment for his or her students. Over the years, volumes of research have been conducted to help teachers determine what works best for the students. There is a wealth of methods and techniques that, through research, have been proven to improve the quality of the learning environment. Many different aspects of the learning environment should be considered.

A positive learning environment is one in which school staff, students, and parents build safe and peaceful environments where people feel accepted and respected and where learning is the main focus (Stratman, n.d.). Therefore, a positive school climate exists when all students feel comfortable, wanted, valued, accepted, and secure in an environment where they can interact with caring people they trust. A positive school climate affects everyone associated with the school, being the students, staff, parents, and the community. It is the belief system or culture that underlies the day-to-day operation of a school. “Improved school climate is a goal to pursue. Educators need to constantly work toward improving their school climate, culture, and conditions so that student learning is improved” (Noonan, 2004 p.64). How Teachers Can Set the Tone for a Positive Learning Environment

There are many things a teacher can do to make his or her classroom a safe and positive place for students to learn. First and foremost, a teacher needs to be enthusiastic about her or himself. They must come in with an energetic attitude. They must be positive because it radiates. How the teacher feels and appears it will affect the classroom. The teacher is the facilitator, the teacher sets an example, and the teacher is the role model. Attitude goes a long way.

When teachers come to work stressed-out, it can be damaging to the students. A study conducted by Yoon (2002) investigated whether or not teacher stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy would predict the quality of student-teacher relationships. Findings suggested, “negative teacher-student relationships were predicted by teacher stress. Significant correlations were found among negative affect, teacher stress and negative relationships”(p.486).

The teacher should also share with the students the importance of an education and the importance of being independent. So if they see a teacher enthused about learning and ideas are shared, then the students will feel the same as well. Teachers can also help create a positive environment by simply caring for the students and showing each of them that they are special. Furthermore, they should be taught to respect and care for each other.

Teachers should regularly conduct research to stay up-to-date on the best practices and methods to use in creating a positive learning environment. Freda Glatt, a retired teacher who firmly believes in the benefits of a positive learning environment has shared some tips on creating a positive learning environment through the Sandral Sensations website (2003):

Make sure each child knows that he is important to you as an individual. Give eye contact and a pleasant greeting to every child each morning. Look and sound enthusiastic when a child makes progress on a skill he is finding difficult. Anytime is a good time for a smile.

Teach students to help rather than to laugh. It takes a lot of bravery to participate when you are unsure of yourself. Bring that to your class’ attention by doing some role-playing. Ask how they felt when their classmates laughed at them. Remind your pupils that everyone is human and makes mistakes…but that it is okay and expected. You do not want them to fear being ridiculed if they ask a question or answer incorrectly.

Take note of your students’ strengths and let them help you throughout the year. Make a positive statement before giving a correction. Your reaction when a child gets an answer wrong is also important. “A positive statement, followed by a negative one, helps to soften the blow and you remind students that you care” (Burnett, 1999, p.3).

George Stratman of the San Diego County Office of Education (n.d.) has created a useful list of “10 Subtle Ways to Create a Positive Learning Environment”, which can be a useful guide of elementary school teachers:

1. Begin your week by “nesting.” Students need time upon arrival to become familiar with and comfortable in their new surroundings. Take time during your first class to discuss the week and what they will be doing and to answer questions they may have.

2. Use the students’ names. They will feel that you know them and care about them.

3. Catch them being good. Praise the group and individuals when they do well. (Be careful not to over praise an individual. Telling the other students that they should behave “just like Suzy” can be counterproductive–and not necessarily appreciated by Suzy.)

4. Dignify wrong answers. If a child gives a wrong answer, give him or her credit for trying, and if possible, relate their answer to the subject matter. For example, if you are asking the students for an example of a decomposer and a student answers “manzanita,” you could respond by saying, “the manzanita is a vital part of this ecosystem, so you’re on the right track. However, I’m looking for a living organism that would help break down the manzanita into soil after it dies.”

5. Give students a second chance to answer correctly. You could follow-up on the situation above by giving all the students an opportunity to share with their neighbors some examples of decomposers. Once it is clear that everyone has an answer, tell the student (above) that you will give him/her another opportunity and then, after you’ve taken an answer or two from other students, call on that student again.

6. Don’t “zap” students. If a student is misbehaving, try and redirect the behavior in subtle ways such as moving closer to that individual, utilizing his or her name in a sentence during instruction (such as “let’s say we were walking on the trail and Johnny came across a deer track…”), or a gentle hand on the shoulder. If you must address the child directly and aggressively, pull him/her away from the group. If you overtly discipline a child in front of the group, others may be afraid to participate for fear of the same treatment.

7. Phrase your questions in a manner that is non-threatening. It is better to ask, “who would like to share with the group…” than to ask “who knows the answer to…” as the latter implies that if you don’t raise your hand, you don’t know.

8. Allow for thinking time. After you ask a question or give instructions give the students time to process. If you give instructions and ask for questions but do not provide wait time, children who process slower than others may not understand and will feel lost once the activity starts. Students who are not given adequate time to consider when answering a question will similarly feel left out.

9. Don’t repeat answers. When a student makes a comment, let his/her comment stand on its own. If you repeat the answer, the students will be trained to listen only to the teacher and you will steal some of the “thunder” away from the student. If you think the others did not hear, have the student repeat the answer. (Note: this technique may not work when addressing 200 people, but is very effective with a smaller group.)

10. Give the students choices. Make sure the choices you give are acceptable to you. For instance, you can say “today we are going to climb ‘Daredevil Hill,’ would you like to do that before or after lunch?” Giving some choice in activities, or at least the order, gives the students some control and buy-in for their week.

How Parents Can Set the Tone for a Positive Learning Environment:

Parents can also play a part in creating a positive learning environment (Muijs, 2004). Teachers should expect parents to work with their child and school personnel to support the learning of their child and the learning environment of the school. The Canadian Education Act 1997) asserts certain expectations for parents. These are to: “meet the basic needs of their child; ensure their child attends school; encourage their child to complete assigned homework; attend to their child’s conduct while the child is at school and on the way to and from school; communicate reasonably with school personnel.” (Canadian Education Act, 1997, p.1).

Just as the teacher’s attitude plays a role in establishing the positive environment, the parents’ attitudes also take effect (Ajzen, 1988, p.10). Parents can help by sending the child off to school on a positive note. If a parent smiles as he or she wishes the child a nice day and says “I love you”, the child is already approaching the day with a positive outlook and will be more receptive to learning (Ajzen, 1988, p.10).

In conclusion, with the support and dedication of the teachers, parents, and administration, any learning environment can and should be transformed into a positive learning environment. Clearly, everyone has a different role to play and a responsibility to fulfill in order to maintain the positive environment. There are many benefits to maintaining a positive learning environment. “Positive learning environments in schools will maximize the learning of every student; Help children and youth become full participating citizens of society; Help to build a sense of community; Lead to cost savings and economic benefits as prevention is less expensive than incarceration” (Positive Learning Environments in Schools, 2005).


Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, & behavior. Chicago: The Dorsey Press.

Burnett, P. (1999). The impact of teachers’ praise on students’ self-talk and self-concepts. New South Wales, Aus: Teaching and Teacher Education. Retrieved September 15, 2005, from ERIC database.

Canadian Education Act.(1997) Retrieved Sep. 14, 2005, from

DiGiulio, R. (2001). Educate, medicate, or litigate? what teachers, parents, and administrators must do about student behavior.. California, US: Educational Management. Retrieved September 15, 2005, from ERIC database.

Doctor, S. (1997). Creating a positive school climate. Towards Inclusion: Tapping Hidden Strengths, 3. Retrieved Sep 14, 2005, from

Glatt, F. J. (2003). Retrieved Sep. 14, 2005, from Reading is FUNdamental Web site: http://www.sandralreading.com.

Johnson, C., Templeton, R., & Guofang, W. (2000). Pathways to peace: promoting non-violent learning environments.. Chicago: Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Retrieved September 16, 2005, from ERIC database.

Muijs, D., Harris A., Chapman C., and Stoll, L. (2004). Improving schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas–a review of research evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15(2), 149-175.

Source by Rebecca Schauffele

May 14, 2017 0 comment
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To date, traditional international law does not consider human environmental rights to a clean and healthy environment to be a jus cogens human right. Jus cogens ("compelling law") refers to preemptory legal principles and norms that are binding on all international States, regardless of their consent. They are non-derogable in the sense that States can not make a reservation to a treaty or make domestic or international laws that are in conflict with any international agreement that they have rated and that to which they are a party. They "prevail over and invalidate international agreements and other rules of international law in conflict with them … [and are] subject to modification only by a subsequent norm … having the same character." (1) Thus, they are the axiomatic and universally accepted legal norms that bind all nations under jus gentium (law of nations). For example, some UN Charter provisions and conventions against slavery or torture are considered jus cogens rules of international law that are nononderogable by parties to any international convention.

While the international legal system has evolved to embrace and even codify basic, non-derogable human rights, 2 the evolution of environmental legal regimes have not advanced as far. While the former have found a place at the highest level of universally recognized legal rights, the latter have only recently and over much opposition, reached a modest level of recognition as a legally regulated activity within the economics and politics of sustainable development.

1. The international legal community recognizes the same sources of international law as does the United States' legal system. The three sources of international law are stated and defined in the Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (R3dFRLUS), Section 102. The first source is Customary International Law (CIL), defined as the "general and consistent Practice of states followed out of a sense of legal obligation "(3) (opinio juris sive necessitatus), rather than out of moral obligation. Furthermore, CIL is violated whenever a State, "as a matter of state policy, … practices, encourages or condones (a) genocide, (b) slavery … (c) the murder or causing the disappearance of individuals, ( D) torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment … or (g) a consistent pattern of gross violations of internationally recognized human rights. " (4) To what extent such human rights need to be "internationally recognized" is not clear, but certainly a majority of the world's nations must recognize such rights before a "consistent pattern of gross violations" results in a violation of CIL. CIL is analogous to "course of dealing" or "usage of trade" in the domestic commercial legal system.

Evidence of CIL includes "constitutional, legislative, and executive directives of states, proclamations, judicial decisions, arbitral awards, writings of specialists on international law, international agreements, and resolutions and recommendations of international conferences and organizations." (5) It follows that such evidence is sufficient to make "internationally recognized human rights" protected under universally recognized international law. Thus, CIL can be created by the general proliferation of the legal acknowledgment (opinio juris) and actions of States of what exactly constitutes "internationally recognized human rights."

2. The next level of binding international law is that of international agreements (treaties), or Conventional International Law. Just as jus cogens rights and rules of law, as well as CIL, are primary and universally binding legal precepts, so do international treaties form binding international law for the Party Members that have rated that treaty. The same way that some States' domestic constitutional law declares the basic human rights of each State's citizens, so do international treaties create binding law concerning the rights delineated therein, according to the customary international jus gentium principle of pacta sunt servanda (agreements are to be Respected). Treaties are in turn internalized by the domestic legal system as a matter of law. Thus, for example, the UN Charter's provision against the use of force is binding international law on all States and it, in turn, is binding law in the United States, for example, and on its citizens. (6) Treaties are analogous to "contracts" in the domestic legal system.

Evidence of Conventional International Law includes treaties, of course, as well as related material, interpreted under the usual canons of construction of relying on the text itself and the words' ordinary meanings. [7] Often, conventional law has to be interpreted within the context of CIL. (8) As a practical matter, treaties are often modified by amendments, protocols and (usually technical) annexes. Mechanisms exist for "circumventing strict application of consent" by the party states. Generally, these mechanisms include "framework or umbrella conventions that specifically state general obligations and establish the machinery for further norm-forming devices … individual protocols establishing particular substantive obligations … [and] technical annexes." (9) Most of these new instruments "do no require ratification but enter into force in some simplified way." (10) For example, they may require only signatures, or they enter into force for all original parties when a minimum number of States ratify the modification or without a minimum number of States object within a certain time frame, or goes into force for all Except those that object. (11) Depending on the treaty itself, once basic consensus is reached, it is not necessary for all to consent to certain modifications for them to go into effect. "[I] na sense these are instances of an IGO ([international governmental organization]] organ 'legislating' directly for [s] tates." (12)

3. Finally, rules of international law are also derived from universal General Principles of Law "common to the major legal systems of the world." 13 These "general principals of law" are principles of law as such, not of international law per se. While many consider these general principles to be a secondary source of international law that "may be invoked as supplementary rules … where appropriate" (14), some considered them on an "footing of formal equality with the two positivist elements of custom and Treaty ". (15) Examples are the principles of res judicata, equity, justice, and estoppel. Frequently, these rules are inferred by "analogy to domestic law concerning rules of procedure, evidence and jurisprudence." (16) However, "while shared concepts of internal law can be used as a fall-back, there are sever limits because of the characteristic differences between international law and internal law." 17 Evidence of General Principles of Law includes "municipal laws, doctrine and judicial decisions." (18)

Treaty provisions and their inherent obligations can create binding CIL if they are "of a fundamentally norm-creating character such as could be related as forming the basis of a general rule of law." (19) A basic premise of this article is that the "relatively exclusive ways (of lawmaking) of the past are not suitable for contemporary circumstances." (20) Jonathan Charney maintains that today's CIL is more and more being created by consensual multilateral forums, as opposed to State practice and opinio juris, and that "[consensus, defined as the lack of expressed objections to the rule by any participant, may Often be sufficient … In theory, one clearly phrased and strongly agreed declaration at a near-universal diplomatic forum could be sufficient to establish new international law. " (21) This process should be understood conceptually as "general international law", rather than CIL, as the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has often done.

In like vein, Professor Gunther Handl argues that all multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) of "global applicability" create "general international law":

"A multilateral treaty that addresses fundamental concerns of the international community at large, and that as such is strongly supported by the vast majority of states, by international organizations and other transnational actors, – and this is, of course, precisely the case with The biodiversity, climate, and ozone regimes, among others-may indeed create expectations of general compliance, in short such a treaty may come to be seen as reflecting legal standards of general applicability … and as such must be deemed capable of creating rights And obligations both for third states and third organizations. " (22)

Notwithstanding, Daniel Bodansky argues that CIL is so rarely supported by State action, that it is not customary law at all. "International environmental norms reflect not how states regularly do, but how states speak to each other." 23 Calling such law "declarative law" that is part of a "myth system" representing the collective ideals and the "verbal practice" of States, he concludes that "our time and efforts would have been better applied to translate the general norms Of international environmental relations into concrete treaties and actions. " (24)

However, a review of the current status of international human rights and environmental law may reveal the mechanisms for raising environmental rights to the level of jus cogens rights. For example, the UN Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), whose negotiation was initiated in 1972 and signed in 1982, was considered by most countries to be CIL by the time it came into force in 1994. (25)

II. CURRENT STATUS OF THE RIGHT TO A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT No State today will publicly state that it is within its sovereign rights to damage their domestic environment, much less that of the international community, however most States do not guarantee environmental protection as a basic human right. Currently, environmental law is composed of mostly Conventional International Law and some CIL. The former relations on express consent and the latter on implied consent, unless a State avails itself of the Persistent Objector principle, which precludes it from being bound by even most CIL. Unlike for human rights and international crimes, there is no general environmental rights court in existence today. While the Law of the Sea Tribunal and other UN forums (eg, the ICJ) exist for trying cases of treaty violations, non-treaty specific violations have no international venue at present. Italian Supreme Court Justice Amedeo Postiglione states that

"[T] he human right to the environment, must have, at the international level, a specific organ of protection for a fundamental legal and political reason: the environment is not a right of States but of individuals and can not be effectively protected by the International Court of Justice in the Hague because the predominately economic interests of the States and existing institutions are often at loggerheads with the human right to the environment. " (26)

Domestic remedies would have to be pursued first, of course, but standing would be granted to NGOs, individuals, and States when such remedies proved futile or "the dispute raises issues of international importance." (27) For example, although the ICJ has an "environmental chamber" and US courts often appoint "special masters" to handle these types of disputes, it is clear that the recognition of the human right to the environment needs an international court of its Own in order to recognize such a right and remedy international violations in an efficient and equitable manner. (28)

III. THE JUS COGENS NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RIGHTS Irrespective of specific treaty obligations and domestic environmental legislation, do States, or the international community as a whole, have a duty to take measures to prevent and safeguard against environmental hazards?

Human rights are "claims of entitlement" that arise "as of right" 31 and are independent of external justification; They are "self evident" and fundamental to any human being living a dignified, healthy and productive and rewarding life. As Louis Henkin points out:

"Human rights are not some abstract, echoate 'good'; they are defined, particular claims listed in international instruments such as the [UN's] Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the major covenants and conventions. They are those benefits deemed essential for individual well -being [sic], dignity, and fulfillment, and that reflect a common sense of justice, fairness, and decency. [No longer are human rights treated as grounded in or justified by utilitarianism], natural law, … social contract, Or any other political theory … [but] are derived from accepted principles, or are required by accepted ends-societal ends such as peace and justice; individual ends such as human dignity, happiness, fulfillment. [Like the fundamental rights guaranteed by The US Constitution, these rights are] inalienable and imprescriptible; they can not be transferred, forfeited, or waived; they can not be lost by having been usurped, or by one's failure to exercise or assert them. " (32)

Henkin distinguishes between "immunity claims" (such as 'the State can not do X to me'; the hallmark of the US constitutional jurisprudential system) and "resource claims" (such as 'I have a right to Y') such that the individual Has the right to, for example, free speech, "food, housing, and other basic human needs." 33 In today's "global village", the Right to a Healthy Environment is clearly a "resource claim" and a basic human need that transcends national boundaries.

According to RG Ramcharan, there is "a strict duty … to take effective measures" by States and the international community as a whole to protect the environment from the potential hazards of economic development. (34) His position is that the Human Right to Life is a. Jus cogens, non-derogable peremptory norm that by its very nature includes the right to a clean environment. This duty is clearly spelled out in such multilateral treaties as the UN Convention on Desertification, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the Convention on Biological Diversity. 35 It is expounded in the Stockholm, Rio and Copenhagen Declarations as a core component of the principle of Sustainable Development. It forms the basis of NAFTA's, the WTO's and the European Union's economic development agreements, and the European Convention and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which has been rated by most countries in the world, including the United States.

The Human Right to a Healthy Environment is explicitly contained in the Inter-American and African Charters, as well as in the constitution of over 50 countries worldwide. Whether it is based on treaties, CIL, or "basic principles", the obligation of the international community to the environment is today clearly spelled out and enforceable through international tribunals. For example, the Lhaka Honhat Amid Curiae Brief recognized the rights of the indigenous peoples of Argentina to "an environment that supports physical and spiritual well being and development." 36 Similarly, in a separate decision, the Inter-American Human Rights Commission upheld the right of the Yanomani in Brazil to a healthy and clean environment. [37] On a global level, the UN Human Rights Committee has stated that environmental damage is "a violation of the right to life contained in Article 6 (1) of the [ICCPR]". (38)

Thus, today, the erga omnes obligation of States to take effective steps to safeguard the environment is a duty that no State can shirk or ignore. If it does, it runs the risk of prosecution by international courts and having to institute measures commensurate with its responsibility to protect its share of the "global commons". Interestingly, the concept of jus cogens emerged after World War II as a response to the commonly held view that the sovereignty of States excused them from violating any of the then so-called CILs. According to Black's Law Dictionary, "there is a close connection between jus cogens and the recognition of a 'public order of the international community' … Without expression using the notification of jus cogens, the [ICJ] claimed its existence when it was reported To obligations erga omnes in its jurisdiction … in the Barcelona Traction Case. " (39)

IV. THIRD GENERATION HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Is environmental protection is an erga omnes obligation, that is, one owed to the international community as a whole as a jus cogens human right?

In a separate opinion to the Case Concerning the Gebecikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia), Judge Weeramantry, the Vice President of the ICJ, expounded on the legal basis for sustainable development as a general principle of international law. In the process, he concludes that environmental protection is a universal erga omnes legal norm that is both CIL as well as a general principle of law per se. In Gebecikovo, ostensibly to have been decided upon the merits of the treaty governing the building of power plants along the Danube, as well as by international customary law, the ICJ held that the right to development must be balanced with the right to environmental protection by The principle of sustainable development. Even in the absence of a specific treaty provision, the concept of sustainable development has become a legal principle that is "an integral principle of modem international law". (40)

Sustainable development is also recognized in State practice, such as the Dublin Declaration by the European Council on the Environmental Imperative. (41) As such, sustainable development has in effect been raised to the level of CIL.

For example, the Martens Clause of the 1899 Hague Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land has been interpreted in 1996 by Judge Shahabudeen of the ICJ as providing a legal basis for informing that general principles rise above custom and treaty, having their basis In "principles of humanity and the dictates of public conscience". (42) According to Weeramantry, "when a duty such as the duty to protect the environment is so well accepted that all citizens act upon it, that duty is part of the legal system in question … as general principles of law recognized by Civilized of nations. " (43)

Sustainable development acts as a reconciling between economic development and environmental protection. Just as economic development is an inalienable right of States' self-determination, environmental protection is an erga omnes obligation of all States for the benefit of the global commons that all share. "The principle of sustainable development is that a part of modern international law by reason not only of its inescapable logical necessity, but also by reason of its wide and general acceptance by the global community", and not just by developing countries. (44)

Drawing upon the rich history of diverse cultures' legal systems and what he calls "living law", Judge Weeramantry points out that traditional respect for nature has been a moral and legal principle for economic development through history. The ICJ has also recognized these principles in such previous decisions as Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain) in 1972. (45) Judge Weeramantry concludes that the "ingrained values ​​of any civilization are the source from which its legal concepts derive … [and that environmental protection is] among those pristine and universal values ​​which command International recognition. " (46)

The first generation of Human Rights were those declared by the "soft law" of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: "Everyone has the right to life liberty and security of person." Art. 3. It was modeled on the US Bill of Rights and the American Declaration of Independence. This was echoed in the binding ICCPR ("Every human being has the inherent right to life", ICCPR, Art. 6 (1) (1966)), which the US has ratified, and the American Convention on Political and Civil Rights of The Inter-American System (which draws direct connections between human rights and environmental rights).

The second generation of human rights emerged with the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ECOSOC) developed in such treaties as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR; which the US has not ratified), and many foreign State's Constitutions Eg, Germany, Mexico, and Costa Rica). These include the right to free choice of work, to (usually free) education, to rest, leisure, etc. Highly satisfied with in Europe, these rights have additionally been expanded by the EU in their European Social Charter (1961) creating much legislation for the protection of workers, women, and children.

The third and current generation of human rights has emerged from the Eco-Peace-Feminist Movement. These include the Right to Development, the Right to A Safe Environment and the Right to Peace. In essence, this third generation of rights addresses the problem of poverty as a social (and hence legally redressable) ill that lies at the core of environmental problems and violations. The "environmental justice" movement consignees cases that demonstrate that environmental pollution is disproportionately prevalent in minor communities, whether at a local or international level. Authors John Cronin & Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., have explicitly authored their study of environmental pollution along the Hudson River The Riverkeepers: Two Activists Fight to Reclaim Our Environment as a Basic Human Right. 47 This predominately US movement focuses on "environmental racism" as a means for seeking remedies or the disproportionate pollution of minority communities as violations of current civil rights legislation by "exploring] the use of the nations' environmental laws to protect the rights of The poor. " (48)

V. RECOGNITION, COMMITMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF A RIGHT: THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL AS A MODEL FOR CONSENSUS BUILDING The key mechanisms for establishing binding international law are recognition of an obligation or right, commitment to its protection, and effective enforcement methods. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is the "most important precedent in international law for the management of global environmental conflicts." 49 It serves as a model for many other environmental concerns that require decision-making in the face of scientific uncertainty, global non-consensus, and high harm-avoidance costs. It was the first international "precautionary" treaty to address a global environmental concern when not even "measurable evidence of environmental damage exhausted." (50) Although ozone depletion by chloro-fluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs), and the attendant hormones of overexposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation, had been suspected by scientists in the early 1970s, it was not until 1985 and the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer that international action was taken to address the problem.

THE VIENNA CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER At the time of the Vienna Convention, the US represented over 50% of the global consumption of CFCs in a $ 3 billion market for aerosol propellants alone. Overall, CFC products represented a $ 20 billion market and about a quarter of a million jobs in America alone. [51] The Clean Air Amendments of 1977 and the 1978 EPA ban on all "non-essential" uses of CFC in aerosol propellants was quickly followed internationally by similar bans by Sweden, Canada and Norway. [52] These actions were a direct response to consumer pressure and market demands by newly environmentally-conscious consumers. 53 Incentives were also provided to the developing countries so that they could "ramp up" at reasonable levels of reductions. (54)

Creative certification incentives including requiring only 11 of the top two-thirds of CFC producing countries to ratify and bring the treaty into force. 55 As a result of such flexibility, innovation, consensus and cooperation, the Montreal Protocol has been hailed as a major success in international diplomacy and international environmental law. Today almost every nation in the world is a member (over 175 States).

THE LONDON ADJUSTMENTS AND AMENDMENTS OF 1990 By 1990 scientific confirmation of global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer led to the London Adjustments and Amendments. Again, US companies such as Dupont, IBM and Motorola reacted to massive negative media attention and promised to halt complete production by 2000.

Non-compliance procedures were made even more user friendly and no sanction for non-compliance was initiated against a country that was failing to reach quotas while acting in good faith. Technology transfer was made in a "fair and favorable way", with developed countries taking the lead in assisting developing countries reach compliance. 56 The US instituted "ozone depletion taxes" which did much to get more comprehensive compliance, as well as promoting research into CFC alternatives. 57 To emphasize the vast enforcement mechanisms implemented, consider that early 1998 the US Justice Department had prosecuted 62 individuals and 7 corporations for the illegal smuggling into the emerging CFC black markets. Since an international crackdown by the FBI, EPA, CIA, and Interpol in the global police effort Operation Breeze, 5 to 10 thousands tons are smuggled into Miami alone, second only to cocaine smuggling. 58 In 1992 the Copenhagen Amendments required every State party (practice the whole world) to institute "procedures and institutional mechanisms" to determine non-compliance and enforcement. (59)


The critical weaknesses of the existing system include self-serving pronouncements by non-compliance States, lack of effective enforcement mechanisms, political limitations such as State sovereignty and the "margin of appreciation", and the lack of universal consensus on basic human rights terminology and Their enforcement. As long as States can ignore commonplace violations of human rights (sporadic instances of torture, occasional "disappearances") and shun the edicts of human rights judicial decisions, there can be no effective system of international human rights enforcement. Currently, without a State commits such outrageous acts on a mass scale that affects world peace, such as in Yugoslavia and Rwanda, it can often evade its responsibilities under international human rights treaties.

There are few international agreements that admit of universal jurisdiction for their violation by any State in the world. All CIL, however, is by its very nature feasible under universal jurisdiction. "Crimes against humanity" (eg, War Crimes, genocide, and State-supported torture) are universally held to be under universal jurisdiction, typically in the International Court of Justice, ad hoc war crime tribunals, and the new International Criminal Court.

While interpretive gaps exist, it is not inconceivable that the right to a healthy environment can be extrapolated from current international environmental treaties and CIL. At the treaty level, the protection of the environment appears to be of paramount importance to the international community. At the level of CIL, there is much evidence that the right to a healthy environment is already an internationally protected right, at least as far as trans-boundary pollution is concerned. In any case, it seems to be universally held that it should be protected as a right. The impression is that there is an unmistakable consensus in this regard. "Soft law" over time becomes CIL.

The UN World Commission on Environment and Development released the Earth Charter in 1987. It has yet to be fully implemented on a global scale. Its broad themes include respect and care for the environment, ecological integrity, social and economic justice and democracy, nonviolence and peace. [60] The argument can be made by now, protection of the environment has reached the threshold of Customary International Law. Whatever the nations of the world choose to thereafter recognize the right to a healthy environment as a jus cogens human right will depend on the near universal consensus and political will of most of the nations of the world. Until then, as long as human life continues to be destroyed by "human rights ratifying" nations, how much enforcement will be employed against violators of environmental laws when the right to a healthy environment is not upheld as a basic human right remains to be seen . It will take the cooperation of all nations to ensure that this becomes a non-derogable, unalienable right and recognizing it as essential to the Right to Life.

1. Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States, § 102 cmt. K (1987).
The elements can also be found in the Vienna Convention, Article 53.
2. For example, the Right to Life, to be Free from Torture, Genocide, and Murder.
3. R ​​(3d) FRLUS § 102 (l) (a) and cmt. H.
4. Id., § 702 (my emphasis).
5. Mark W. Janis, An Introduction to International Law 6 (3d ed, Aspen Law & Business 1999).
6. R3dFRLUS § 102 (2).
7. Janis, supra.
8. David Hunter, et al., International Environmental Law and Policy, p. 306 (2d ed., Foundation Press 2002).
9. Paul Szasz, International Norm Making, in Edith Brown Weiss, Ed., ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW (1995), as quoted in Id, p. 307.
10. Id.
11. Id.
12. Id.
13. R3dFRLUS § 102 (l) (c), as presented in Donoho, supra.
14. Supra, R3dFRLUS §102 (4).
15. Shabtai Rosenne, Practice and Methods of International Law 69 (1984), as quoted in Hunter, Id, p. 317.
16. Hunter, supra, p. 316 (Foundation Press 2002).
17. Id, p. 316.
18. Janis, supra, p. 29.
19. Id, p. 312.
20. Jonathan Charney, Universal International Law, 87 Am.J.Int'l.L. 529, at 543-48 (1993), as quoted in Hunter, supra, p. 322.
21. Id.
22. Gunther Handl, The Legal Mandate of Multilateral Development Banks as Agents for Change Towards Sustainable Development, 92 Am.J.Int'l.L. 642, at 660-62 (1998), as quoted in Hunter, supra, p. 324.
23. Daniel Bodansky, Customary (and Not So Customary) International Environmental Law, 3 Ind. J. Global Legal Stud. 105, 110-119 (1995), as quoted in Hunter, Id.
24. Id.
25. Id, p. 659.
26. Amedeo Postiglione, The Global Environmental Crisis: The Need for and International Court of the Environment, ICEF INTERNATIONAL REPORT at 33-36 (1996), quoted in Hunter, supra, p. 495.
27. Id., p. 496.
28. Id.
29. Id, p. 1298.
30. Id, p. 1299.
31. L. Henkin, "The Human Rights Idea", The Age of Rights (reprinted in Henkin, et al., Human Rights, 1999), as presented in Donoho, supra, p. 14-16.
32. Id.
33. Id.
34. The Right to Life, p. 310 (The Hague, 1983), quoted in Hunter, supra, p. 1297.
35. Hunter, supra, p. 341.
36. Id, p. 1299.
37. Id, p. 1294.
38. Id, p. 1295.
39. Black's Law Dictionary, p. 864. (West 1999).
40. Hunter, supra, p. 339-341.
41. Id, footnotes 1 through 6, pp. 341-342.
42. Id, pp. 317-318.
43. Id, p. 345.
44. Id, p. 342.
45. Id, p. 315.
46. Id, p. 344.
47. In particular, see pages 35, 38, 159, 162, 177-199 and 221 (Scribner 1997).
48. New York Law Journal, January 1993, Friday, ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, p. 3. See also, DISCUSSION: REFLECTIONS ON ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE, 65 Alb. L. Rev. 357, 2001.
49. Hunter, supra, p. 526.
50. Id, p. 527, quoting Richard Benedick, Ozone Diplomacy 2 (1998)
51. Id, p. 532.
52. Id, p. 535.
53. Id, p. 542.
54. Id, p. 545.
55. Id.
56. Id, p. 550-54.
57. Id, p. 562.
58. Id, p. 559.
59. Id, p. 566-67.
60. Roland Huber, International Environmental Law Seminar: Human Rights and the Environment, p. 24, in Donoho, Douglas L., INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS (printed by the Shepard Brad Law Center, Nova Southeastern University, 2002).

Source by Manuel Perez-Leiva

March 29, 2017 0 comment
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